Advertisement

Journal of Science Education and Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Introduction to Special Issue—STEM Workforce: STEM Education and the Post-Scientific Society

  • Gregory CamilliEmail author
  • Ronil Hira
Article
  • 96 Downloads

Abstract

An assumption is often made that STEM shortages can be remedied by either increasing the number of STEM graduates or enlarging STEM labor supply through immigration. Yet in some STEM fields, there are classic signs of adequate supply or even oversupply. The issue is further complicated by nonlinear career dynamics and rapidly evolving international pressures. The goals of this special issue are to summarize the research, and more importantly, to go beyond the current debate to identify critical policy issues in preparing individuals for STEM careers that are personally satisfying and meeting the needs of industry and the public sector. A common theme is that broader skill sets will be required that span STEM and non-STEM fields. However, political and other expedient considerations have continued to shape workforce policies.

Keywords

STEM labor shortage International student assessment Workforce training Twenty-first century skills STEM education policy STEM careers Labor outsourcing Automation 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of Informed Consent/Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Arntz, M., Gregory, T., & Zierahn, U. (2016). The risk of automation for jobs in OECD countries: a comparative analysis. OECD social, employment and migration working papers, no. 189. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.1787/5jlz9h56dvq7-en.
  2. Aoun, J. (2017). Robot proof: higher education in the age of artificial intelligence. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  3. Autor, D. (2017). Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation. J Econ Perspect, 29(3), 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014). The second machine age: work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  5. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018a). Job openings and labor turnover summary – July 2018. Sept 11. Retrieved 9/16/2018 from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/jolts.nr0.htm
  6. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018b). The Employment Situation – August 2018. Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail. Retrieved 9/16/2018 from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t17.htm
  7. Bush, V. (1945). Science the endless frontier: a report to the President. Washington D.C: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  8. Carnevale, A. P., Jayasundera, T., & Repnikov, D. (2014). Understanding online jobs data. In Center on education and the workforce. Georgetown University.Google Scholar
  9. Davenport, T.H. (2016). What data scientist shortage? Get serious and get talent. DataInformed. Downloaded from http://data-informed.com/what-data-scientist-shortage-get-serious-and-get-talent/.
  10. della Cava, M. (2018, July 30). Uber shuts down its controversy-steeped self-driving truck effort to focus on autonomous cars. Downloaded 9/12/2018 from https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/30/uber-shuts-down-self-driving-truck-effort-focus-autonomous-cars/867284002/.
  11. Education Committee on STEM, & Council, N. S. and T. (2013). Federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education 5-year strategic plan. Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council.Google Scholar
  12. Ford, M. (2015). Rise of the robots: technology and the threat of a jobless future. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Freeman, R. B. (1976). A cobweb model of the supply and starting salary of new engineers. Ind Labor Relat Rev, 30, 236–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heaton, G.R., Cheney, D.W., Hill, C.T., & Windham, P.H. (2016). U.S. universities and industry’s human resource needs. Technology Policy International, LLC.Google Scholar
  16. Henke, N., Bughin, J., Chui, M., Manyika, J., Saleh, T., Wiseman, B., & Sethupathy, G. (2016). The age of analytics: competing in a data-driven world. New York: McKinsey Global Institute.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, C. (2007). The post-scientific society. Issue in science and technology, 24 (2). Retrieved 10-1-2017 from http://issues.org/24-1/c_hill/.
  18. Hira, R., & Hira, A. (2008). Outsourcing America: the true cost of shipping jobs abroad and what can be done about it. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  19. IDC. (2018). Worldwide spending on cognitive and artificial intelligence systems will grow to $19.1 billion in 2018, according to new IDC spending guide. March 22. Retrieved 8-20-2018e from https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS43662418.
  20. Jadav, D. (2018, May 2). The STEM crisis: What the growing skills gap means for the economy and where we go from here. The Hill, Congress Blog – Education 385929. Retrieved 8-24-2018.Google Scholar
  21. Kuehn, D., & Salzman, H. (2018). The engineering labor market: an overview of recent trends. In R. B. Freeman & H. Salzman (Eds.), U.S. engineering in a global economy (pp. 11–46). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Korolov, M. (2018). How AI will impact your IT career: AI is fast becoming a go-to technology for business transformation, shaking up roles across the enterprise. Here’s how to make the most of this inevitable evolution. CIO.com. Retrieved 1-16-2018 from https://www.cio.com/article/3247792/careers-staffing/how-ai-will-impact-your-it-career.html.
  23. Lynn, L., Meil, P., & Salzman, H. (2012). Reshaping global technology development: innovation and entrepreneurship in China and India. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 6(2), 143–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mishel, L. & Bivens, J. (2017). The zombie robot argument lurches on: there is no evidence that automation leads to joblessness or inequality. Economic Policy Institute. Report, May 24. Retrieved 8-20-2018 from https://www.epi.org/files/pdf/126750.pdf.
  25. Mozur, P. (2017). Google’s AlphaGo Defeats Chinese Go Master in Win for A.I. The New York Times May 23. Retrieved 8-15-2018 from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/23/business/google-deepmind-alphago-go-champion-defeat.html.Google Scholar
  26. New American Economy. (2017, March). Sizing up the gap in our supply of STEM workers. Retrieved 5-3-2017 from http://www.newamericaneconomy.org/research/sizing-up-the-gap-in-our-supply-of-stem-workers/.
  27. New American Economy. (n.d.). Innovation & STEM Fields. Retrieved 9/16/2018 from https://www.newamericaneconomy.org/issues/innovation-stem-fields/
  28. National Science Board. (2015). Revisiting the STEM workforce: a companion to science and engineering indicators 2014. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. National Academies of Sciences Engineering & Medicine. (2017). Engineering technology in the United States (chapter 4, tables 4.1 & 4.2). Washington: D.C. National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  30. National Academies of Sciences Engineering & Medicine. (2018). The next generation of biomedical and behavioral sciences researchers. Washington: D.C. National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  31. Noonan, R. (2017). STEM jobs: 2017 update. U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, Office of the Chief Economist. In Downloaded 9/13/2018 from http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/stem-jobs-2017-update.pdf.Google Scholar
  32. OSTP. (n.d.). Executive Office of the President President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  33. Salzman, H. (2013). What Shortages? The real evidence about the STEM workforce. Issues in Science and Technology, (Summer 2013), 58–67.Google Scholar
  34. Salzman, H. (2014, September 15), STEM grads are at a loss. U.S. news and worlds report. Downloaded 9/13/2018 from https://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2014/09/15/stem-graduates-cant-find-jobs.
  35. Schwab, K. (2017). The fourth industrial revolution. New York: Crown Business.Google Scholar
  36. Smith, E. (2017). Shortage or surplus? A long-term perspective on the supply of scientists and engineers in the US and the UK. Review of Education, 5(2), 171–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Turk-Bicakci, L., Berger, A., & Haxton, C. (2014). The non-academic careers of STEM PhD holders. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.Google Scholar
  38. U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). Census bureau reports majority of STEM college graduates do not work in STEM occupations. In Downloaded 9/13/2018 from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2014/cb14-130.html.Google Scholar
  39. U.S. House Education & Workforce Committee. (2013). Hearing highlights need for more effective STEM education programs downloaded. April 10. 9/16/2018 from https://edworkforce.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=328081
  40. Winick, E. (2018). Every study we could find on what automation will do to jobs, in one chart. There are about as many opinions as there are experts. Technology Review. Retrieved 8-24-2018 from https://www.technologyreview.com/s/610005/every-study-we-could-find-on-what-automation-will-do-to-jobs-in-one-chart.
  41. Xue, Y. & Larson, R.C. (2015). STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes. Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 8/20/2018 from https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2015/article/stem-crisis-or-stem-surplus-yes-and-yes.htm.Google Scholar
  42. Zhao, Y. (2016). Counting what counts: reframing education outcomes. Solution Tree.Google Scholar
  43. Zhao, Y. (2012). World class learners: educating creative and entrepreneurial students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  44. Zhao, Y. (2018, May). Reach for greatness: personalizable education for all children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Howard UniversityWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Rutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations