Coda Q estimation for Kinnaur region and surrounding part of NW Himalaya

  • Naresh KumarEmail author
  • Dhirendra Nath Yadav


Spatial variation of coda wave attenuation is obtained for the Kinnaur Himalaya using the single backscattering model based on the data of 376 local earthquakes ranging in magnitude from 1.5 to 4.5. A frequency-dependent S-coda wave quality factor, Qc = 69f 1.0 (Qc = Q0f n), is obtained at eight central frequencies between 1.5 and 24 Hz for epicenter distance ≤ 30 km. The “n” values are found to vary highly, maximum in the tectonically and seismically active High Himalaya, intermediate in the seismically active Kaurik-Chango region, and least in the Spiti valley. Q0 (Qc at 1 Hz) is high in the High Himalaya, with values ranging from 87 to 109 which matches with already published works. It decreases towards NNE, the value is lowest in the Tethys Himalaya which varies between 49 and 55. To investigate attenuation with increasing depth, the Qc is estimated at eight coda wave window lengths between 20 and 90 s. With increasing window length, equivalent to increasing lapse times, the Q0 increases from 46 ± 3 to 493 ± 34 and n value decreases from 1.07 to 0.58. Further by dividing the entire coda wave data into four groups of epicenter distances, i.e., 0–25, 26–50, 51–75, and 76–100 km, Qc relations are estimated to vary as 111f 0.93, 183f 0.80, 264f 0.73, and 296f 0.71, respectively, for four groups. The increase of Qc with increasing lapse time is interpreted as a decrease of heterogeneity with depth. The data is reasonably fit in the power-law decay of turbidity.


Quality factor Coda wave Kinnaur Himalaya Lapse time Heterogeneity 



We are thankful to Director WIHG, Dehradun, for giving permission to publish this work. Mr. Chandan Bora is thanked for executing the station installation and data collection; Monika Wadhwan is thanked for assisting in analyzing data. We thank the supporting staff of WIHG for helping to collect the seismic data from Kinnaur seismic network. The authors thank Prof. B.R. Arora for fruitful discussions and valuable suggestions. NK thanks European Commision for Marie Curie fellowship and International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy for Regular Associate fellowship. Editor and anonymous reviewer are thanked for constructive suggestions and modifications.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Atomic Mineral Directorate for Exploration and ResearchHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Applied GeophysicsIndian Institute of Technology (3 ISM)DhanbadIndia

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