Advertisement

Journal of Seismology

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1359–1376 | Cite as

Shear-wave velocity estimation using a combination of ambient noise from small aperture array and small-scale active seismic measurements: a case study in the area of the natural gas fields of Northern Germany

  • Moritz Fehr
  • Simon Kremers
  • Ralf Fritschen
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 153 Downloads

Abstract

In recent years, numerous induced seismic events have occurred in the proximity of the natural gas field in Northern Germany. To monitor the seismicity and to asses the seismic hazard potential, a local monitoring network was installed in the area. Focusing on the seismicity hazard assessment, a major challenge is the characterisation of potential site effects due to local soil characteristics. This is quantitatively performed by estimating the shear-wave velocity (V s) variation with subsurface layer thickness. Such local effects can only be covered with a coarse spatial resolution due to the limited number of monitoring stations. Profiles were determined at three test sites (Langwedel, Walle and Bomlitz) by using a combined approach of small aperture 2D array ambient noise and small-scale active 1D measurements. The high-resolution frequency-wavenumber (HRFK), spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methods were applied to the recorded ambient noise and active seismic data using various array sizes supplemented by the active measurements. This jointly allowed obtaining phase velocity dispersion curves covering a wide frequency range from 2 up to 32 Hz. The inversion of the obtained dispersion curves results in average S-wave velocity profiles down to depths of 70 m, identifying thin near-surface layers of a few meters as well as thicker layers of tens of meters in greater depth. A comparison with available borehole data shows a good correlation with the layering. Additionally, to asses the impact of a seismic event at the test sites, PGV estimations for various seismic events were performed. The final results of the test surveys demonstrate that the combined approach represents a suitable tool for near-surface characterisation, which can be used to improve the seismic hazard assessment in the area of the natural gas fields in Northern Germany.

Keywords

Array ambient noise Site effects Seismic hazard Induced seismicity 

Notes

Funding information

This work was funded by DEA Deutsche Erdoel AG, ENGIE E&P, ExxonMobil Production Deutschland, Wintershall and the Bundesverband Erdgas, Erdöl und Geoenergie e.V. (BVEG).

References

  1. Aki K (1957) Space and time spectra of stationary stochastic waves, with special reference to microtremors.  https://doi.org/10.2261/11892
  2. Asten MW (1984) Array estimators and the use of microseisms for reconnaissance of sedimentary basins.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bard PY (1996) Microtremor measurements: a tool for site effect estimation?. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on the effects of surface geology on seismic motion, 13 December 1998Google Scholar
  4. Bard PY, Gariel JC (1986) The seismic response of two-dimensional sedimentary deposits with large vertical velocity gradients. Bull Seismol Soc Am 76(2):343Google Scholar
  5. Bettig B, Bard PY, Scherbaum F, Riepl J, Cotton F, Cornou C, Hatzfeld D (2001) Analysis of dense array noise measurements using the modified spatial auto-correlation method (SPAC): application to the Grenoble area. Boll Geofis Teor Appl 42(3-4):281–304Google Scholar
  6. Bonnefoy-Claudet S, Bard P, Cotton F (2004) Site effect evaluation in the basin of Santiago de Chile using ambient noise measurements. Final report, WP08— Nature of noise wavefield, SESAME-Project, EVG1-CT-2000-00026.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.04020.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonnefoy-Claudet S, Cotton F, Bard PY (2006) The nature of noise wavefield and its applications for site effects studies. A literature review. Earth Sci Rev 79(3-4):205–227.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bonnefoy-Claudet S, Köhler A, Cornou C, Wathelet M, Bard PY (2008) Effects of love waves on microtremor H/V ratio. Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(1):288–300.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120070063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonnefoy-Claudet S, Baize S, Bonilla LF, Berge-Thierry C, Pasten C, Campos J, Volant P, Verdugo R (2009) Site effect evaluation in the basin of Santiago de Chile using ambient noise measurements. Geophys J Int 176(3):925–937.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.04020.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bormann P (2012) New manual of seismological observatory practice (NMSOP-2) IASPEI. GFPotsdam.  https://doi.org/10.2312/GFZ.NMSOP-2
  11. Capon J (1969) High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis. Proc IEEE 57(8):1408–1418.  https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1969.7278 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chatelain JL, Guillier B, Cara F, Duval AM, Atakan k, Bard PY (2008) Evaluation of the influence of experimental conditions on h/v results from ambient noise recordings. Bulletin of Earthquake EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahm T, Krüger F, Stammler K, Klinge K, Kind R, Wylegalla K, Grasso JR (2007) The 2004 Mw 4.4 Rotenburg, northern Germany, earthquake and its possible relationship with gas recovery. Bull Seismol Soc Am 97(3):691–704.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120050149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davis SD, Pennington WD (1989) Induced seismic deformation in the Cogdell Oil Field west Texas. Bull Seismol Soc Am 79(5):1477–1494Google Scholar
  15. Di Giulio G, Cornou C, Ohrnberger M, Wathelet M, Rovelli A (2006) Deriving wavefield characteristics and shear-velocity profiles from two-dimensional small-aperture arrays analysis of ambient vibrations in a small-size alluvial basin, Colfiorito, Italy. Bull Seismol Soc Am 96(5):1915–1933.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120060119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dost B, Goutbeek F, Van Eck T, Kraaijpoel D (2012) Monitoring induced seismicity in the North of the Netherlands: status report 2010. KNMI-Scientific ReportGoogle Scholar
  17. Duval AM, Bard PY, Lebrun B, Lacave-Lachet C, Riepl J, Hatzfeld D (2001) H/v technique for site response analysis. synthesis of data from various surveys. Boll Geofis Teor Appl 42(3-4):267–280Google Scholar
  18. van Eck T, Goutbeek F, Haak H, Dost B (2006) Seismic hazard due to small-magnitude, shallow-source, induced earthquakes in The Netherlands. Eng Geol 87:105–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Endrun B, Ohrnberger M, Savvaidis A (2010) On the repeatability and consistency of three-component ambient vibration array measurements. Bull Earthq Eng 8(3):535–570.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-009-9159-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fäh D, Kind F, Giardini D (2003) Inversion of local S-wave velocity structures from average H/V ratios, and their use for the estimation of site-effects. J Seismol 7(4):449–467.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOSE.0000005712.86058.42 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gemmer L, Nielsen SB, Bayer U (2003) Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic evolution of the North German Basin-results from 3-D geodynamic modelling. Tectonophysics 373(1-4):39–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00282-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gouédard P, Cornou C, Roux P (2008) Phase-velocity dispersion curves and small-scale geophysics using noise correlation slantstack technique. Geophys J Int 172(3):971–981.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03654.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grasso JR, Wittllinger G (1990) Ten years of seismic monitoring over a gas field area. Bull Seismol Soc Am 80(2):450–473Google Scholar
  24. Haghshenas E, Bard PY, Theodulidis N (2008) Empirical evaluation of microtremor h/v spectral ratio. Bull Earthq Eng 6(1):75–108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-007-9058-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Havenith HB, Fäh D, Polom U, Roullé A (2007) S-wave velocity measurements applied to the seismic microzonation of Basel, Upper Rhine Graben. Geophysical Journal International.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03422.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hobiger M, Cornou C, Wathelet M, Di Giulio G, Knapmeyer-Endrun B, Renalier F, Bard PY, Savvaidis A, Hailemikael S, Le Bihan N, Ohrnberger M, Theodoulidis N (2013) Ground structure imaging by inversions of Rayleigh wave ellipticity: sensitivity analysis and application to European strong-motion sites. Geophys J Int.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggs005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Horike M (1985) Inversion of phase veolcity of long-period microtremors to the S-wave-velocity structure down to the basement in urbanized areas. J Phys Earth 33:59–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang HC, Yang YT, Chiu HC (2002) Site response evaluation using the h/v ratio at the Yan-Liau station in Hualien, Taiwan. Pure Appl Geophys 159(11):2715–2731.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-002-8755-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kennett BLN, Kerry NJ (1979) Seismic waves in a stratified half space. Geophys J R astr Soc 57:557–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Köhler A, Ohrnberger M, Scherbaum F, Wathelet M, Cornou C (2007) Assessing the reliability of the modified three-component spatial autocorrelation technique. Geophys J Int 168(2):779–796.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03253.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Konno K, Ohmachi T (1998) Ground-motion characteristics estimated from spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components of microtremor. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  32. Kühn D, Ohrnberger M, Dahm T (2011) Imaging a shallow salt diapir using ambient seismic vibrations beneath the densely built-up city area of Hamburg, Northern Germany. J Seismol 15(3):507–531.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-011-9234-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lachet C, Bard PY (1994) Numerical and theoretical investigations on the possibilities and limitations of Nakamura’s technique. J Phys Earth 42:377–397.  https://doi.org/10.4294/jpe1952.42.377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lacoss RT, Kelly EJ (1969) Estimation of seismic noise structure using arrays. Geophysics 34 (1):21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lebrun B, Hatzfeld D, Bard PY (2002) Site effect study in urban area: experimental results in Grenoble (France). Birkhäuser Basel, Basel, pp 2543–2557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lontsi AM, Sánchez-Sesma FJ, Molina-Villegas JC, Ohrnberger M, Krüger F (2015) Full microtremor h/v(z, f) inversion for shallow subsurface characterization. Geophys J Int 202(1):298–312.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggv132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lontsi AM, Ohrnberge M, Krüger F (2016) Shear wave velocity profile estimation by integrated analysis of active and passive seismic data from small aperture arrays. J Appl Geophys 130:37–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2016.03.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Malischewsky PG, Scherbaum F (2004) Love’s formula and H/V-ratio (ellipticity) of Rayleigh waves. Wave Motion 40(1):57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wavemoti.2003.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mcgarr A (1991) On a possible connection between three major earthquakes in California and oil production. Bull Seismol Soc Am 81(3):948–970Google Scholar
  40. Nakamura Y (1989) A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surfaceGoogle Scholar
  41. Ohrnberger M (2005) FK/SPAC Capabilities and limitationsGoogle Scholar
  42. Okada H (2003) The Microtremor survey method. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560801740
  43. Oubaiche EH, Chatelain J, Hellel M, Wathelet M, Machane D, Bensalem R, Bouguern A (2016) The relationship between ambient vibration h/v and sh transfer function: Some experimental results. Seismol Res Lett 87(5):1112.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0220160113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Panou AA, Theodulidis N, Hatzidimitriou P, Stylianidis K, Papazachos CB (2005) Ambient noise horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio in site effects estimation and correlation with seismic damage distribution in urban environment: The case of the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 25 (4):261–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Park CB, Miller RD, Xia J (1999) Multichannel analysis of surface waves. Geophysics 64 (3):800–808.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1444590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Poggi V, Fäh D, Burjanek J, Giardini D (2012) The use of Rayleigh-wave ellipticity for site-specific hazard assessment and microzonation: application to the city of Lucerne, Switzerland. Geophys J Int 188(3):1154–1172.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05305.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Richwalski SM, Picozzi M, Parolai S, Milkereit C, Baliva F, Albarello D, Roy-Chowdhury K, van der Meer H, Zschau J (2007) Rayleigh wave dispersion curves from seismological and engineering-geotechnical methods: a comparison at the bornheim test site (Germany). J Geophys Eng 4 (4):349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Roberts J, Asten M (2004) Resolving a velocity inversion at the geotechnical scale using the microtremor (passive seismic) survey method. Exploration Geophysics Butsuri-Tansa Mulli-Tamsa 35 (1):14–18Google Scholar
  49. Rosas RV, Aguirre J, Estrella HF, Arellano HM (2011) Microtremor studies using the SPAC method: experiences and applications to four sites in Mexico. Geofisica Internacional 50(3):295–312Google Scholar
  50. Rost S (2002) Array seismology: methods and applications. Rev Geophys 40(3):1008.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000RG000100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sambridge M (1999) Geophysical inversion with a neighbourhood algorithm—I. Searching a parameter space. Geophys J Int 138:479–494.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.1999.00876.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Satoh T, Kawase H, Marsushima S (2001) Estimation of S-Wave velocity structures in and around the Sendai Basin, Japan, using array records of microtremors. Bull Seismol Soc Am 91(2):206–218.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0119990148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Scheck M, Bayer U (1999) Evolution of the Northeast German Basin inferences from a 3D structural model and subsidence analysis. Tectonophysics 313(1-2):145–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(99)00194-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scherbaum F, Hinzen K, Ohrnberger M (2003) Determination of shallow shear wave velocity pro_les in the Cologne/Germany area using ambient vibrations. Geophys J Int 152:597–612.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01856.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scholze M (2011) Machbarkeit mikroseismischer Messungen über norddeutschen Rotliegend ReservoirenGoogle Scholar
  56. Spica ZJ, Perton M, Nakata N, Liu X, Beroza GC (2018) Site characterization at groningen gas field area through joint surface-borehole h/v analysis. Geophys J Int 212(1):412–421.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggx426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Theodulidis N, Bard PY, Archuleta R, Bouchon M (1996) Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio and geological conditions: the case of Garner Valley downhole array in southern California. Bull Seismol Soc Am 86(2):306–319.  https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.83.1.59 Google Scholar
  58. van Thienen-Visser K, Breunese JN (2015) Induced seismicity of the Groningen gas field: history and recent developments. Lead Edge 34(6):664–671.  https://doi.org/10.1190/tle34060664.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tokimatsu K (1997) Geotechnical site characterization using surface waves. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on earthquake geotechnical engineering Ishihara (ed) Balkema 35:1333–1368Google Scholar
  60. Tuan TT, Scherbaum F, Malischewsky PG (2011) On the relationship of peaks and troughs of the ellipticity (H/V) of Rayleigh waves and the transmission response of single layer over half-space models. Geophysical Journal International.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04863.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wathelet M (2005) Array recordings of ambient vibrations : surface-wave inversionGoogle Scholar
  62. Wathelet M (2008) An improved neighborhood algorithm: parameter conditions and dynamic scaling. Geophys Res Lett 35(9):1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033256 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wathelet M, Jongmans D, Ohrnberger M (2004) Surface-wave inversion using a direct search algorithm and its application to ambient vibration measurements. Near Surface Geophys 2(4):211–221.  https://doi.org/10.3997/1873-0604.2004018 Google Scholar
  64. Woods JW, Lintz PR (1973) Plane waves at small arrays. Geophysics 38(6):1023–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Xia J, Miller RD, Park CB (1999) Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh waves. Geophysics 648(3):691–700.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1444578 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018
corrected publication September/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ruhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.DMT GmbH & Co. KGEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations