Advertisement

Effect of Ar Post-irradiations on Magnetic Properties of Cu-Implanted ZnO Single Crystals

  • Q. L. Lin
  • G. P. LiEmail author
  • Z. H. Cheng
  • N. N. Xu
  • H. Liu
  • D.J. E.
  • C. L. Wang
Original Paper
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Ar+ post-irradiation effects on magnetic behavior of Cu+-implanted ZnO single crystals were studied. It was found that Cu+-implanted and Ar+-irradiated samples, even the primary sample, showed a magnetic moment (MM), but the saturation magnetization (MS) of Ar+ post-irradiated on Cu+ as-implanted one drastically decreased. Based on the first-principle method, it was drawn to the incomplete filling electronic configuration of the substituted Cu ion whose 3d orbital hybridized with O-2p contributing to the magnetism. The MM induced by the substituted Cu+ ion was much less than that induced by the substituted Cu2+ and Cu3+ ion, so the ratio of Cu2+,3+/Cu+ decreased after Ar+ post-irradiation, leading to the decrease of MS. The excessive concentration of O vacancy induced by post-irradiation also weakened the MM by their compensating electrons, and decreased the effective magnetic exchange coupling interaction. Cu-related clusters dissolution was also a critical reason for the reduction of MS.

Keywords

ZnO Cu-implanted Ar post-irradiation Magnetism First principles 

Notes

Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575074), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (lzujbky-2017-it39), Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University (lzujbky-2018-kb06), DSTI Foundation of Gansu (2018ZX-07), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB0200504), Bureau of International Cooperation, Chinese Academy of Foreign Cooperation Key Projects (113462KYSB20160040), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA21010202).

References

  1. 1.
    Ahmed Khan, Z., Rai, A., Roy Barman, S., Ghosh, S.: Green luminescence and room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 022105 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chakraborti, D., Narayan, J., Prater, J.T.: Room temperature ferromagnetism in Zn1−xCuxO thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 062504 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dimple, P.D., Garima, S., Manna, P.K., Tyagi, A.K., Yusuf, S.M.: Room temperature ferromagnetism in CoO nanoparticles obtained from sonochemically synthesized precursors. Nanotechnology 19, 245609 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Potzger, K., Zhou, S., Xu, Q., Shalimov, A., Groetzschel, R., Schmidt, H., Mucklich, A., Helm, M., Fassbender, J.: Ferromagnetic structurally disordered ZnO implanted with Co ions. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 232504 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weyer, G., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Mantovan, R., Fanciulli, M., Naidoo, D., Bharuth-Ram, K., Agne, T.: Defect-related local magnetism at dilute Fe atoms in ion-implanted ZnO. J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113915 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhou, S., Potzger, K., Von Borany, J., Grotzschel, R., Skorupa, W., Helm, M., Fassbender, J.: Crystallographically oriented Co and Ni nanocrystals inside ZnO formed by ion implantation and postannealing. Phys. Rev. B 77, 035209 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yildirim, O.A., Durucan, C.: Room temperature synthesis of Cu incorporated ZnO nanoparticles with room temperature ferromagnetic activity: structural, optical and magnetic characterization. Ceram. Int. 42, 3229 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chien, C.H., Chiou, S.H., Guo, G.Y., Yao, Y.D.: Electronic structure and magnetic moments of 3d transition metal-doped ZnO. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 282, 275 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferhat, M., Zaoui, A., Ahuja, R.: Magnetism and band gap narrowing in Cu-doped ZnO. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 142502 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herng, T.S., Qi, D.C., Berlijn, T., Yi, J.B., Yang, K.S., Dai, Y., Feng, Y.P., Santoso, I., Sanchez-Hanke, C., Gao, X.Y., Wee, A.T.S., Ku, W., Ding, J., Rusydi, A.: Room-temperature ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO films probed by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 207201 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hou, D.L., Ye, X.J., Meng, H.J., Zhou, H.J., Li, X.L., Zhen, C.M., Tang, G.D.: Magnetic properties of n-type Cu-doped ZnO thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142502 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hou, D.L., Zhao, R.B., Meng, H.J., Jia, L.Y., Ye, X.J., Zhou, H.J., Li, X.L.: Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-doped TiO2 thin films. Thin Solid Films 516, 3223 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang, L.M., Rosa, A.L., Ahuja, R.: Ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO from first-principles theory. Phys. Rev. B 74, 075206 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ye, L.H., Freeman, A.J., Delley, B.: Half-metallic ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO: density functional calculations. Phys. Rev. B 73, 033203 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kang, B.S., Kim, K.S., Yu, S., Chae, H.: First-principles study for ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO with carrier doping. J. Solid State Chem. 198, 120 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coey, J.M.D., Venkatesan, M., Fitzgerald, C.B.: Donor impurity band exchange in dilute ferromagnetic oxides. Nat. Mater. 4, 173 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu, N.N., Li, G.P., Lin, Q.L., Liu, H., Bao, L.M.: Effect of ar+ ion post-irradiation on crystal structure, magnetic behavior and optical band gap of Co-implanted ZnO wafers. Solid State Commun. 248, 65 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin, Q.L., Li, G.P., Xu, N.N., Liu, H., E, D.J., Wang, C.L.: A first-principles study on magnetic properties of the intrinsic defects in ZnO. J. Chem. Phys. 150, 094704 (2019)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silva, C., Costa, A.R.G., Cruz, M.M., Silva, R.C.D., Borges, R.P., Alves, L.C., Godinho, M.: Nitrogen and argon doped zinc oxide. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22, 346005 (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, Y.B., Li, G.P., Xu, N.N., Pan, X.D.: An optical study of the D-D neutron irradiation-induced defects in Co- and Cu-doped ZnO wafers. Chin. Phys. B 22, 036102 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, T.J., Li, G.P., Gao, X.X., Chen, J.S.: Observation of room ferromagnetism in Cu-implanted crystal ZnO. Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 087501 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karamat, S., Rawat, R.S., Lee, P., Tan, T.L.: Ferromagnetic Cu and Al doped ZnO thin films by PLD. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 200, 072045 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang, D., Zhao, Y.J., Chen, D.H., Shao, Y.Z.: Magnetism and clustering in Cu doped ZnO. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 182509 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kataoka, T., Yamazaki, Y., Singh, V.R., Fujimori, A., Chang, F.H., Lin, H.J., Huang, D.J., Chen, C.T., Xing, G.Z., Seo, J.W., Panagopoulos, C., Wu, T.: Ferromagnetic interaction between Cu ions in the bulk region of Cu-doped ZnO nanowires. Phys. Rev. B 84, 153203 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Labhane, P.K., Huse, V.R., Patle, L.B., Chaudhari, A.L., Sonawane, G.H.: Synthesis of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles: crystallographic, optical, FTIR, morphological and photocatalytic study. J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 03, 13 (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thakur, P., Bisogni, V., Cezar, J.C., Brookes, N.B., Ghiringhelli, G., Gautam, S., Chae, K.H., Subramanian, M., Jayavel, R., Asokan, K.: Electronic structure of Cu-doped ZnO thin films by x-ray absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. J. Appl. Phys. 107, 103915 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ye, H., Su, Z., Tang, F., Wang, M., Chen, G., Wang, J., Xu, S.: Excitation dependent phosphorous property and new model of the structured green luminescence in ZnO. Sci. Rep. -UK 7, 41460 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhao, Y.J., Persson, C., Lany, S., Zunger, A.: Why can CuInSe2 be readily equilibrium-doped n-type but the wider-gap CuGaSe2 cannot? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5860 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herng, T., Lau, S.P., Yu, S.F., Yang, H.Y., Teng, K.S., Chen, J.S.: Enhancement of ferromagnetism and stability in Cu-doped ZnO by N2O annealing. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 356214 (2007)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu, H., Yang, J., Hua, Z., Zhang, Y., Yang, L., Xiao, L., Xie, Z.: The structure and magnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method. Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4162 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gopal, P., Spaldin, N.A.: Magnetic interactions in transition-metal-doped ZnO: an ab initio study. Phys. Rev. B 74, 094418 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhu, M., Zhang, Z., Zhong, M., Tariq, M., Li, Y., Li, W., Jin, H., Skotnicova, K., Li, Y.: Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO. Ceram. Int. 43, 3166 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xu, N.N., Li, G.P., Lin, Q.L., Liu, H., Bao, L.M.: Effect of Ar ion irradiation on the room temperature ferromagnetism of undoped and Cu-doped rutile TiO2 single crystals. Chin. Phys. B 25, 116103 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parmar, N.S., Boatner, L.A., Lynn, K.G., Choi, J.W.: Zn vacancy formation energy and diffusion coefficient of CVT ZnO crystals in the sub-surface micron region. Sci. Rep. -UK 8, 13446 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hu, Y., Li, Kuang, C., Han, T., Yu, C.C.: Post-annealing effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films. J. Appl. Phys. 117, 17B901 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim, C.O., Kim, S., Oh, H.T., Choi, S.H., Shon, Y., Lee, S., Hwang, H.N., Hwang, C.C.: Effect of electrical conduction properties on magnetic behaviors of Cu-doped ZnO thin films. Phys. B: Condens. Matter. 405, 4678 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gu, G., Xiang, G., Luo, J., Ren, H., Lan, M., He, D., Zhang, X.: Magnetism in transition-metal-doped ZnO: a first-principles study. J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023913 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Herng, T.S., Lau, S.P., Yu, S.F., Chen, J.S., Teng, K.S.: Zn-interstitial-enhanced ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO films. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 315, 107 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Q. L. Lin
    • 1
  • G. P. Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Z. H. Cheng
    • 1
  • N. N. Xu
    • 2
  • H. Liu
    • 1
  • D.J. E.
    • 1
  • C. L. Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Nuclear Science and TechnologyLanzhou UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Modern PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations