Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

, Volume 31, Issue 8, pp 2547–2552 | Cite as

Structural and Magnetic Properties of Ordered/Disordered Sendust Powders Prepared by Mechanical Alloying

  • M. AmoohadiEmail author
  • M. Mozaffari
  • A. Gharaati
  • M. Rezazadeh
Original Paper


In this study, Sendust alloy (Fe85Si9.6Al5.4) was fabricated by mechanical alloying process, and its crystal structure and magnetic properties were investigated. Sendust alloy has excellent soft magnetic properties and is widely used in different applications. Raw materials (Fe, Si, and Al) were milled by a planetary ball mill at different milling times, from 5 to 20 h. The resulted alloys were annealed at 1373 and 1473 K for 2 h, and the effect of annealing temperature was investigated on the magnetic properties. Crystal structure of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffractometery method. The results indicated that saturation magnetization of 10-h milled sample was at maximum, and it decreased both by increasing milling time and by annealing. These variations were discussed based on phase transformation from ordered to disordered phases and/or vice versa. The maximum saturation magnetization obtained, 156 emu/g, was comparable by those reported for Sendust alloy, which was prepared by other methods. Magnetization–temperature curves of the alloys and annealed ones were recorded by a Faraday balance. Two clear drops were observed on each M-T curve of the as-milled samples that displayed the existence of two different magnetic phases. On the other hand, there is just one drop on the M-T curves of the annealed samples, indicating that these samples were in a less disordered phase.


Sendust Ordered phase Disordered phase Mechanical alloying process Saturation magnetization 



One of the authors, M. Amoohadi, wishes to thank the Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Iran for providing preparation and some characterizations equipment.


  1. 1.
    Sauthoff, G.: Intermetallics, New York, pp. 5–8. Weinheim, New York (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schwindt, V.C., Sandoval, M., Ardenghi, J., Bechthold, P., González, E., Jasen, P.: Electronic structure and magnetism on FeSiAl alloy: a DFT study. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 389, 73–76 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bertotti, G., Ferchmin, A., Fiorillo, E., Fukamichi, K., Kobe, K., Roth, S.: Magnetic alloys for technical applications. Soft Magnetic Alloys, Invar and Elinvar Alloys (Landolt Börnstein New Series) 3, 33–143 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Froes, F.S., Suryanarayana, C., Russell, K., Li, C.G.: Synthesis of intermetallics by mechanical alloying. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 192, 612–623 (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suryanarayana, C., Li, W., Froes, F.: Synthesis of metastable L12 cubic phases in (Al, M)3Z (M = Fe, Ni) powders by mechanical alloying. Scr. Metall. Mater. 31, 1465–1470 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suryanarayana, C.: Mechanical Alloying and Milling, pp. 216–217. CRC Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’handley, R.C.: Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications, p 367. Wiley, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sauthoff, G.: Intermetallics, pp. 110–111. Weinheim, New York (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ma, T., Yan, M., Wang, W.: The evolution of microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe–Si–Al powders prepared through melt-spinning. Scr. Mater. 58, 243–246 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duan, Y., Gu, S., Zhang, Z., Wen, M.: Characterization of structures and novel magnetic response of Fe87.5Si7Al5.5 alloy processed by ball milling. J. Alloys Compd. 542, 90–96 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zuo, B., Sritharan, T., Teo, Y., Damayanti, M.: Effects of ternary alloying on mechano-synthesis and nano-crystal stability of an iron-silicon alloy. J. Alloys Compd. 390, 82–87 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakker, H., Zhou, G., Yang, H.: Mechanically driven disorder and phase transformations in alloys. Prog. Mater. Sci. 39, 159–241 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Joint committee for powder diffraction standard (JCPDS). Fil no. 00-045-1206, in fil no. 00-045-1206Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fabian, K., Shcherbakov, V., McEnroe, S.: Measuring the Curie temperature. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, 947–961 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zuo, B., Saraswati, N., Sritharan, T., Hng, H.: Production and annealing of nanocrystalline Fe–Si and Fe–Si–Al alloy powders. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 371, 210–216 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kalita, M., Perumal, A., Srinivasan, A.: Structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe75Si25 powders prepared by mechanical alloying. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 2780–2783 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yavari, A.R., Negri, D., Navarro, E., Deriu, A., Hernando, A., Botta, W.J.: Deformation induced transformations of B2 FeAl and FeRh. J. Metastable Nanocryst. Mater. (Trans Tech Publ) 2-6, 229–236 (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou, G., Bakker, H.: Atomic disorder and amorphization of B2-structure CoZr by ball milling. Scr. Mater. 34, 29–35 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fan, R.-H., Qi, L., Sun, K.N., Min, G.H., Gong, H.-Y.: The bonding character and magnetic properties of Fe3Al: comparison between disordered and ordered alloy. Phys. Lett. A 360, 371–375 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ma, X., Jiang, J., Bie, S., Miao, L., Zhang, C., Wang, Z.: Electronic structure and magnetism of Fe3Al1−xSix alloys. Intermetallics 18, 2399–2403 (1020)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Suryanarayana, C.: Mechanical Alloying and Milling, pp 153–156. CRC Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Motlagh, Z.A., Mozaffari, M., Amighian, J.: Preparation of nano-sized Al-substituted yttrium iron garnets by the mechanochemical method and investigation of their magnetic properties. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 1980–1984 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsPayame Noor UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Materials EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations