Effects of Religious Orientations on the Prevalence of Social Media Disorder Among Muslim University Students in Pakistan

  • Muhammad Ayub BuzdarEmail author
  • Mohammad Nadeem
  • Tahseen Fatima
  • Bushra Naoreen
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of religious orientations on the prevalence of social media disorder among Muslim university students in Pakistan. A total of 686 students (59.0% females), enrolled in the three public-sector universities, participated in the study. The new indices of religious orientation revised and a short version of social media disorder scale were adapted to collect the required information. Both scales demonstrated high reliability coefficients. Results demonstrate significant differences in the religious orientations of disordered and non-disordered social media users. Findings support that the higher extrinsic and quest religious orientations enhance likelihood of being disordered social media users. The enhanced intrinsic religious orientation, however, decreases the chances of being disordered social media users. The implications of research findings in related academic and non-academic settings are discussed at the end of this paper.


Self-criticism Compartmentalization Muslim university Openness 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors certify that they have no financial or non-financial conflict of interest with any organization related to the contents and subject of this paper.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in the current study including data collection from the human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

All the research participants were informed about the objectives and procedure of the study. The data were collected after acquiring their informed consent.


  1. Abbas, J., Aman, J., Nurunnabi, M., & Bano, S. (2019). The impact of social media on learning behavior for sustainable education: evidence of students from selected universities in Pakistan. Sustainability, 11(6), 1683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmer, Z., & Tanzil, S. (2018). Internet addiction among social networking sites users: Emerging mental health concern among medical undergraduates of Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 34(6), 1473–1477. Scholar
  3. Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), 432–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreassen, S. C., Billieux, J., Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Demetrovics, Z., Mazzoni, E., et al. (2016). The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(2), 252–262. Scholar
  5. Batson, C. D., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, W. L. (1993). Religion and the individual: A social-psychological perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Buzdar, M. A., Tariq, R. U. H., & Ali, A. (2018a). Combating terrorism on intellectual battlefields: Lenses on the potentials of universities in Pakistan. Higher Education Policy. Scholar
  7. Buzdar, M. A., Tariq, R. U., Jalal, H., & Nadeem, M. (2018b). Does religiosity reduce narcissistic personality disorder? Examining the case of Muslim University students. Journal of Religion and Health. Scholar
  8. Clayton-Jones, D., Haglund, K. A., Schaefer, J., Koenig, H. G., & Dalmida, S. G. (2019). Use of the spiritual development framework in conducting spirituality and health research with adolescents. Journal of Religion and Health. Scholar
  9. Durak, H. Y. (2018). Modeling of variables related to problematic internet usage and problematic social media usage in adolescents. Current Psychology. Scholar
  10. Flere, S., & Lavrič, M. (2008). Is intrinsic religious orientation a culturally specific American Protestant concept? The fusion of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among non-Protestants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(3), 521–530. Scholar
  11. Francis, L. J. (2007). Introducing the new indices of religious orientation (NIRO): conceptualization and measurement. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 10(6), 585–602. Scholar
  12. Francis, L. J., Fawcett, G. B., Robbins, M., & Stairs, D. (2016). The new indices of religious orientation revised (NIROR): A study among Canadian adolescents attending a baptist youth mission and service event. Religions, 7(5), 56. Scholar
  13. Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N., & Valenzuela, S. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals’ social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17(3), 319–336. Scholar
  14. Gorsuch, R. L., & McPherson, S. E. (1989). Intrinsic/extrinsic measurement: I/E-revised and single-item scales. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28(3), 348–354. Scholar
  15. Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 278730. Scholar
  16. Maltby, J. (1999). The internal structure of a derived, revised, and amended measure of the Religious Orientation Scale: The “Age-Universal” I-E Scale-12. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 27(4), 407–412. Scholar
  17. Paulk, M. E. (2017). Understanding the role of religion in medical decision making. Journal of Oncology Practice, 13(4), 219–220. Scholar
  18. van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Lemmens, J. S., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 478–487. Scholar
  19. Whitley, B., & Kite, M. (2009). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EducationGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of EducationGovernment SE College BahawalpurBahawalpurPakistan

Personalised recommendations