Advertisement

Coping Through Religiosity, Spirituality and Social Support Among Muslim Chronic Hepatitis Patients

  • Malik Muhammad Sohail
  • Qaisar Khalid Mahmood
  • Falak Sher
  • Muhammad Saud
  • Siti Mas’udahEmail author
  • Rachmah Ida
Original Paper

Abstract

Academics acknowledge religiosity, spirituality and social support as socio-behavioral factors that influence patients’ ability to deal with chronic illness. This study has attempted to describe empirical reality of how these factors influence patients. The sample of this study was 500 chronically ill hepatitis patients and was selected through the multistage sampling techniques. Through structured interview schedule, data were collected during the period of September 2016 to March 2017 from five most populated cities of Punjab (Pakistan). Data were analyzed through descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson correlation, and structural equation modeling). The study suggests some recommendations and suggestions to policy makers regarding the significance of religiosity, spirituality and social support as coping strategies during chronic illness. The findings illustrate that social support has more association with coping than religiosity and spirituality of the patients.

Keywords

Religiosity Spirituality Social support Chronic hepatitis Muslim patients 

Notes

Funding

There is no any funding for this research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

We declared that they have no conflict of interest regarding this study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee. This study was approved by Board of studies in University of Sargodha.

References

  1. Adedimeji, A. A., Alawode, O. O., & Odutolu, O. (2010). Impact of Care and Social Support on Wellbeing among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 39(2), 30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, F., Binti Muhammad, M., & Abdullah, A. A. (2011). Religion and spirituality in coping with advanced breast cancer: Perspectives from Malaysian Muslim women. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(1), 36–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Zaben, F., Khalifa, D. A., Sehlo, M. G., Al Shohaib, S., Binzaqr, S. A., Badreg, A. M., et al. (2015). Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(2), 713–730.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alorani, O. I., & Alradaydeh, M. T. (2018). Spiritual well-being, perceived social support, and life satisfaction among university students. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(3), 291–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amadi, C. C., Van Rees, K. C., & Farrell, R. E. (2016). Soil–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in shelterbelts compared with adjacent cropped fields. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 1(223), 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ambachew, S., Eshetie, S., Geremew, D., Endalamaw, A., & Melku, M. (2019). Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among hepatitis C virus-infected patients: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews, 8, 6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-0976-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ardelt, M., & Koenig, C. S. (2006). The role of religion for hospice patients and relatively healthy older adults. Research on Aging, 28(2), 184–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ariadi, S., Saud, M., & Ashfaq, A. (2018). Exploring the role of NGOs’ Health Programs in Promoting Sustainable Development in Pakistan. https://download.atlantispress.com/article/25904562.pdf.
  9. Ashy, M. A. (1999). Health and illness from an Islamic perspective. Journal of Religion and Health, 38(3), 241–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Assari, S. (2013). Race and ethnicity, religion involvement, church-based social support and subjective health in United States: A case of moderated mediation. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(2), 208–217.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Banning, M., Hafeez, H., Faisal, S., Hassan, M., & Zafar, A. (2009). The impact of culture and sociological and psychological issues on Muslim patients with breast cancer in Pakistan. Cancer Nursing, 32(4), 317–324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett, A. S., Elliott, L., & Golub, A. (2013). Opioid and other substance misuse, overdose risk, and the potential for prevention among a sample of OEF/OIF veterans in New York City. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(10), 894–907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Borgmann, L. S., Rattay, P., & Lampert, T. (2017). Social support as a health resource in Germany. Journal of Health Monitoring, 2(4), 110–115.Google Scholar
  14. Bredle, J. M., Salsman, J. M., Debb, S. M., Arnold, B. J., & Cella, D. (2011). Spiritual well-being as a component of health-related quality of life: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp). Religions, 2(1), 77–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Büssing, A., Ostermann, T., & Matthiessen, P. F. (2005). The role of religion and spirituality in medical patients in Germany. Journal of Religion and Health, 44(3), 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Charkhian, A., Fekrazad, H., Sajadi, H., Rahgozar, M., Abdolbaghi, M. H., & Maddahi, S. (2014). Relationship between health-related quality of life and social support in HIV-infected people in Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43(1), 100–106.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Connor-Smith, J. K., Compas, B. E., Wadsworth, M. E., Thomsen, A. H., & Saltzman, H. (2000). Responses to stress in adolescence: Measurement of coping and involuntary stress responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Curtis, R., Groarke, A., Coughlan, R., & Gsel, A. (2004). The influence of disease severity, perceived stress, social support and coping in patients with chronic illness: A 1 year follow up. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 9(4), 456–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dehdari, T., Heidarnia, A., Ramezankhani, A., Sadeghian, S. A., & Ghofranipour, F. (2008). Anxiety, self efficacy expectation and social support in patients after coronary angioplasty and coronary bypass. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 37(4), 119–125.Google Scholar
  20. Dowsett, L. E., Coward, S., Lorenzetti, D. L., MacKean, G., & Clement, F. (2017). Living with hepatitis C virus: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative literature. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2017, 3268650.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3268650
  21. Durà-Vilà, G., & Hodes, M. (2018). Cultural and religious variation in attitudes to young people consenting to health interventions. Journal of Religion and Health, 1, 1.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-018-0686-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dysvik, E., Natvig, G. K., Eikeland, O. J., & Lindstrøm, T. C. (2005). Coping with chronic pain. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42(3), 297–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ellison, C., Hummer, R., Burdette, A., & Benjamins, M. (2010). Race, religious involvement and health. Religion, Families and Health, 31, 321–348.Google Scholar
  24. Enescu, A., Mitrut, P., Balasoiu, M., Turculeanu, A., & Enescu, A. S. (2014). Psychosocial issues in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. Current Health Sciences Journal, 40(2), 93–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferrell, B. R., Smith, S. L., Juarez, G., & Melancon, C. (2003). Meaning of illness and spirituality in ovarian cancer survivors. In Oncology Nursing Forum (Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 249–257).Google Scholar
  26. Fisher, J. (2011). The four domains model: Connecting spirituality, health and well-being. Religions, 2(1), 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Good, M., & Willoughby, T. (2006). The role of spirituality versus religiosity in adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hakim, S. T., Kazmi, S. U., & Bagasra, O. (2008). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C genotypes among young apparently healthy females of Karachi-Pakistan. Libyan Journal of Medicine, 3(2), 66–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hayward, R. D., & Krause, N. (2013). Trajectories of disability in older adulthood and social support from a religious congregation: A growth curve analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36(4), 354–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill, P. C., & Pargament, K. I. (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality. American Psychologist, 58(1), 64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I., Hood, R. W., McCullough, J. M., Swyers, J. P., Larson, D. B., et al. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 51–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoge, R. (1972). A validated intrinsic religious motivation scale. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1, 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine, 7(7), e1000316.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Holtzman, S., Newth, S., & Delongis, A. (2004). The role of social support in coping with daily pain among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Health Psychology, 9(5), 677–695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Idler, E. L. (2003). Discussion: Gender differences in self-rated health, in mortality, and in the relationship between the two. The Gerontologist, 43(3), 372–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Imran, N., Tariq, K. F., Pervez, M. I., Jawaid, M., & Haider, I. I. (2016). Medical students’ stress, psychological morbidity, and coping strategies: A cross-sectional study from Pakistan. Academic Psychiatry, 40(1), 92–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jafari, N., Loghmani, A., & Puchalski, C. M. (2014). Spirituality and health care in Iran: Time to reconsider. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(6), 1918–1922.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jensen, M. P., Turner, J. A., Romano, J. M., & Strom, S. E. (1995). The chronic pain coping inventory: Development and preliminary validation. Pain, 60(2), 203–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Koenig, H. G., & Büssing, A. (2010). The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): A five-item measure for use in epidemological studies. Religions, 1(1), 78–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koenig, S. P., Doganov, R. A., Schmidt, H., Castro Neto, A. H., & Oezyilmaz, B. (2014). Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus. Applied Physics Letters, 104(10), 103106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kraemer, L. M., Stanton, A. L., Meyerowitz, B. E., Rowland, J. H., & Ganz, P. A. (2011). A longitudinal examination of couples’ coping strategies as predictors of adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(6), 963.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Krause, N. (2002). Exploring race differences in a comprehensive battery of church-based social support measures. Review of Religious Research, 1, 126–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krok, D. (2008). The role of spirituality in coping: Examining the relationships between spiritual dimensions and coping styles. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 11(7), 643–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Hope: An emotion and a vital coping resource against despair. Social Research, 1, 653–678.Google Scholar
  45. Lim, C., & Putnam, R. D. (2010). Religion, social networks, and life satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 75(6), 914–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mann, J. R., Mannan, J., Quiñones, L. A., Palmer, A. A., & Torres, M. (2010). Religion, spirituality, social support, and perceived stress in pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 39(6), 645–657.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Martins, H., Romeiro, J., & Caldeira, S. (2017). Spirituality in nursing: An overview of research methods. Religions, 8(10), 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maslow, G. R., Haydon, A., McRee, A. L., Ford, C. A., & Halpern, C. T. (2011). Growing up with a chronic illness: Social success, educational/vocational distress. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2), 206–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Masters, K. S., & Spielmans, G. I. (2007). Prayer and health: Review, meta-analysis, and research agenda. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(4), 329–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Merino, E., & Nevado, C. (2014). Addition of CF 3 across unsaturated moieties: A powerful functionalization tool. Chemical Society Reviews, 43(18), 6598–6608.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Minnebo, L., Velde, K. V., Delabastita, P., inventors; Agfa-Gevaert NV, assignee. (2005). Sub-dot phase modulation for computer to plate inkjet system. United States patent US 6,962,400.Google Scholar
  52. Moin, A., Fatima, H., & Qadir, T. F. (2018). Tackling hepatitis C—Pakistan’s road to success. The Lancet, 391(10123), 834–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nasar, K., Fahad, A., Sulaiman, B., Abdul, A., Muhammad, D., & Azam, H. (2017). Prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection in Punjab Province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49(4), 1511–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nelson-Becker, H. (2005). Religion and coping in older adults: A social work perspective. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45(1–2), 51–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Omland, T., Pfeffer, M. A., Solomon, S. D., de Lemos, J. A., Røsjø, H., Benth, J. Š., et al. (2013). Prognostic value of cardiac troponin I measured with a highly sensitive assay in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 61(12), 1240–1249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. O’neill, D. P., & Kenny, E. K. (1998). Spirituality and chronic illness. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(3), 275–280.Google Scholar
  57. Pargament, K. I. (1999). The psychology of religion and spirituality? Yes and no. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 9(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Park, J., Kitayama, S., Karasawa, M., Curhan, K., Markus, H. R., Kawakami, N., et al. (2013). Clarifying the links between social support and health: Culture, stress, and neuroticism matter. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(2), 226–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pérez, R. C. (2005). Perspectivas constructivistas: La intersección entre el significado, la interacción y eldiscurso. Graó.Google Scholar
  60. Rafferty, K. A., Billig, A. K., & Mosack, K. E. (2015). Spirituality, religion, and health: The role of communication, appraisals, and coping for individuals living with chronic illness. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(5), 1870–1885.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Roger, K. S., & Hatala, A. (2018). Religion, spirituality & chronic illness: A scoping review and implications for health care practitioners. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 37(1), 24–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roohafza, H., Talaei, M., Pourmoghaddas, Z., Rajabi, F., & Sadeghi, M. (2012). Association of social support and coping strategies with acute coronary syndrome: A case–control study. Journal of Cardiology, 59(2), 154–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sabry, W. M., & Vohra, A. (2013). Role of Islam in the management of psychiatric disorders. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(Suppl 2), S205–S214.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Saffari, M., Pakpour, A. H., Mortazavi, S. F., & Koenig, H. G. (2016). Psychometric characteristics of the Muslim Religiosity Scale in Iranian patients with cancer. Palliative & Supportive Care, 14(6), 612–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sarhill, N., LeGrand, S., Islambouli, R., Davis, M. P., & Walsh, D. (2001). The terminally ill Muslim: Death and dying from the Muslim perspective. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®, 18(4), 251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schaper, D. (2000). Me-First ‘Spirituality’ is a sorry substitute for organized religion on campuses. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(50), A56.Google Scholar
  67. Schnell, T. (2012). Spirituality with and without religion—Differential relationships with personality. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 34(1), 33–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Long-term effects of spousal support on coping with cancer after surgery. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 716–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shinall, M. C., Jr. (2009). The separation of Church and Medicine. Virtual Mentor, 11(10), 747–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sohail, M. M. (2018). Belief in God’s help during hepatitis C: A qualitative study on Muslim patients in Pakistan. Journal of Religion and Health.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-018-0700-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sohail, M. M., Yasin, M. G., & Ahmad, S. (2018). A phenomenological account of social sources, coping effects and relational role of social support in nursing among chronic patients with hepatitis. Journal of Research in Nursing., 23(1), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Streib, H., & Hood, R. W. (2011). Spirituality” as privatized experience-oriented religion: Empirical and conceptual perspectives. Implicit Religion, 14(4), 433–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thune-Boyle, I. C., Stygall, J. A., Keshtgar, M. R., & Newman, S. P. (2006). Do religious/spiritual coping strategies affect illness adjustment in patients with cancer? A systematic review of the literature. Social Science and Medicine, 63(1), 151–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Tüzün, H., Aycan, S., & Ilhan, M. N. (2015). Impact of comorbidity and socioeconomic status on quality of life in patients with chronic diseases who attend primary health care centres. Central European Journal of Public Health, 23(3), 188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Uchino, B. N. (2006). Social support and health: A review of physiological processes potentially underlying links to disease outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(4), 377–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Udermann, B. E. (2000). The effect of spirituality on health and healing: A critical review for athletic trainers. Journal of Athletic Training, 35(2), 194–197.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Unantenne, N., Warren, N., Canaway, R., & Manderson, L. (2013). The strength to cope: Spirituality and faith in chronic disease. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(4), 1147–1161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Underwood, L. G., & Teresi, J. A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 22–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Van Olphen, J., Schulz, A., Israel, B., Chatters, L., Klem, L., Parker, E., et al. (2003). Religious involvement, social support, and health among African-American women on the east side of Detroit. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18(7), 549–557.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Von Kodolitsch, Y., Bernhardt, A. M., Kölbel, T., Detter, C., Reichenspurner, H., & Debus, E. S. (2015). Maximizing therapeutic success: The key concepts of individualized medical strategy (IMS). Cogent Medicine, 2(1), 1109742.Google Scholar
  81. Weathers, E. (2018). Spirituality and health: A Middle Eastern perspective. Religions, 9(2), 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Woods, T. E., & Ironson, G. H. (1999). Religion and spirituality in the face of illness: How cancer, cardiac, and HIV patients describe their spirituality/religiosity. Journal of Health Psychology, 4(3), 393–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Yaseen, M. R., Aziz, S., & Aftab, S. (2014). Socio-economic factors affecting hepatitis C and lack of awareness: A case study of Pakistan. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43(10), 1456–1457.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Yodchai, K., Dunning, T., Savage, S., & Hutchinson, A. M. (2017). The role of religion and spirituality in coping with kidney disease and haemodialysis in Thailand. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 31(2), 359–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., & Scott, A. B. (1999). The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 889–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  2. 2.Department of SociologyInternational Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of SociologyGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political ScienceUniversitas AirlanggaSurabayaIndonesia
  5. 5.Department of Communication, Faculty of Social and Political ScienceUniversitas AirlanggaSurabayaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations