Relationship Among Religious Orientation, Individual Attributes, and Presence of People in Urban Public Space

  • Ali Reza SadeghiEmail author
  • Elahe Sadat Mousavi Sarvine Baghi
  • Zahra Paston
Original Paper


The purpose of this paper is to study the rate of presence in an urban space and how it is related to people’s intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations and individual attributes. For measuring religious orientation, the Allport’s Scale of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation was used. The information was collected from 100 residents of Mashhad, an important religious city of Iran. Results show that internal and external religious orientations do not have a significant relationship with the presence of people in urban spaces. But there is a strong relationship between individual attributes (marital status, employment status, income level, and family relationships) and the presence of people in urban spaces. This research shows that designing with attention to environmental factors affecting mental states and attention to the presence of social strata with different income levels in urban spaces can have more impact on the presence of people in urban spaces.


Religious orientation Urban public space Presence of people Individual attribute 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There was no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urban Planning and Design, Faculty of Art and ArchitectureShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Art and ArchitectureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Art and ArchitectureShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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