Developmental Trajectories of Religious Service Attendance: Predictors of Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Dependence/Abuse in Early Midlife

  • Chenshu ZhangEmail author
  • Judith S. BrookEmail author
  • Carl G. Leukefeld
  • David W. Brook
Original Paper


This longitudinal study assesses the associations between developmental trajectories of religious service attendance from mean age 14 to mean age 43 and nicotine dependence and alcohol dependence/abuse at mean age 43 (N = 548). Six trajectories of religious service attendance were identified. As compared with belonging to weekly stable trajectory group, a higher probability of belonging to the weekly/none decreasing, occasional stable, and non-attendance trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of nicotine dependence. In addition, as compared with belonging to weekly stable trajectory group, a higher probability of belonging to the weekly/none decreasing, weekly/occasional decreasing, occasional stable, and non-attendance trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol dependence/abuse. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that religious service attendance protects against nicotine dependence and alcohol dependence/abuse in early midlife.


Trajectories of religious service attendance Nicotine dependence Alcohol dependence/abuse Growth mixture modeling Longitudinal study 



This research was supported by NIH Grants DA032603 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse awarded to Dr. Judith S. Brook. We thank Elizabeth Rubenstone and Linda Capobianco for their assistances and helpful advices to the study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral SciencesUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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