Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 537–553 | Cite as

Predicting the Happiness of Adolescents Based on Coping Styles and Religious Attitudes

  • Marjan Fariddanesh
  • Ali Mohammad RezaeiEmail author
Psychological Exploration


The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani’s Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson’s correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and religious attitudes (r = 0.129, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a negative significant association was observed between emotion-focused coping styles and happiness (r = −0.184, P < 0.01). Moreover, results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the listed variables explained 17% of the variance of happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.


Religious attitudes Problem-focused coping styles Emotion-focused coping strategies Happiness 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consents were obtained from all of the participants.


  1. Abolmaali, K., Ghafari, T., & Ajilchi, B. (2014). The prediction of high school girls’ happiness based on their educational major and their mothers’ gender stereotypes. Advances in Applied Sociology, 4(4), 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., & Mahoney, A. (2011). Examining coping methods with stressful interpersonal events experienced by Muslims living in the United States following the 9/11 attacks. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Afshinmehr, H., Weisi, F., Mortazavi, S. S., Zinat-Motlagh, F., & Mahboubi, M. (2014). Relationship between Islamic copying styles and happiness state in parents of exceptional children. Journal of Science and Today’s World, 3(12), 567–570.Google Scholar
  4. Aghili, M., & Kumar, G. V. (2008). Relationship between religious attitudes and happiness among professional employees. Journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 66–69.
  5. Aliakbari Dehkordi, M., Peymanfar, E., Mohtashami, T., & Borjali, A. (2015). The comparison of different levels of religious attitude on sense of meaning, loneliness and happiness in life of elderly persons under cover of social welfare organization of urmia city. Journal of Salmand, 9(4), 297–305. Retrieved from
  6. Alipour, A., & Agah Harris, M. (2007). OHI reliability and validity in Iranians. Journal of Iranian Psychologists, 3(12), 287–298.Google Scholar
  7. Andrews, F. M., & McKannell, A. C. (1980). Measure of self-reported Well-being: Their affective, cognitive and other components. Social Indicators Research, 8(2), 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angner, E., Miller, M. J., Ray, M. N., Saag, K. G., & Allison, J. J. (2010). Health literacy and happiness: A community-based study. Social Indicators Research, 95(2), 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Babamiri, M., Vatankhah, M., Karami Rad, B., & Ghasemi, M. (2013). Relationship between stress coping styles, negative automatic thoughts, life quality and happiness in hospitalized cardiovascular patients. Jentashapir Journal of Health Research, 5(2), 27–35.Google Scholar
  11. Bahri Najafi, F., & Mehrshad Jafari, E. (2015). Investigating the relationship between religious beliefs and elementary teacher’s happiness in the working environment. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Researches, 1(2), 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-Zur, H. (2009). Coping styles and affect. International Journal of Stress Management, 16(2), 87–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campante, F. R., & Yanagizawa-Drott, D. H. (2013). Does religion affect economic growth and happiness? Evidence from Ramadan. The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from
  14. Campos, M., Iraurgui, J., Paez, D., & Velasco, C. (2004). Afrontamiento y regulación emocional de hechos estresantes: Un meta-análisis de 13 estudios. Boletin-de-Psicologia, (82), 25–44. Retrieved from
  15. Clements, A. D., & Ermakova, A. V. (2012). Surrender to God and stress: A possible link between religiosity and health. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(2), 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, A. B. (2002). The importance of spirituality in well-being for Jews and Christians. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(3), 287–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa, P. T., & McCare, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being, and happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(4), 668–678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Delbridge, J., Headey, B., & Wearing, A. J. (1994). Happiness and religious beliefs. In L. B. Brown (Ed.), Religion, personality, and mental health (pp. 50–68). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diong, S. M., Bishop, G. D., Enkelmann, H. Chong, Tong, E. M. W., Why, Y. P., Ang, J. C. H., et al. (2005). Anger, stress, coping, social support and health: Modeling the relationships. Psychology & Health, 20(4), 467–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellison, C. G. (1991). Religious involvement and subjective well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(1), 80–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Feldman, P. J., & Steptoe, A. (2003). Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with glycated hemoglobin in nondiabetic middle-aged men and women. Health Psychology, 22(4), 398–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fishter, J. H. (1981). Religion and pain. New York: Crossroads.Google Scholar
  23. Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55(6), 647–654.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Forouhari, S., Ghaemi, S. Z., Tobesaz, P., & Sharif, F. (2014). Relation between religious beliefs and mental health among students of Hazrat-e-Fatemeh Nursing and Midwifery College Shiraz-Iran. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 3(2), 1459–1462.Google Scholar
  25. Francis, L. J., Jones, S. H., & Wilcox, C. (2000). Religiosity and happiness: During adolescence, young adulthood and later life. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 19, 245–257.Google Scholar
  26. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. French, S., & Joseph, S. (1999). Religiosity and its association with happiness, purpose in life, and selfactualisation. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2(2), 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. García-Alandete, J., & Bernabé Valero, G. (2013). Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates. Acción psicológica, 10(1), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ghobary Bonab, B., Miner, M., & Proctor, M. (2013). Attachment to God in Islamic spirituality. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 7(2), 77–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Głaz, S. (2015). The importance of terminal values and religious experience of God’s presence and God’s absence in the lives of university students with various levels of empathy. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(3), 1052–1067.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Golshekoh, F. (2015). The relationship between religious attitudes, anxiety, and self-concept in students. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2(3), 59–64.Google Scholar
  32. Gustems-Carnicer, J., & Calderón, C. (2013). Coping strategies and psychological well-being among teacher education students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(4), 1127–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hadyanfard, H. (2005). Subjective feelings of well-being and religious activity in a group of Muslims. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 11(2), 224–232.Google Scholar
  34. Hahn, S. E. (2006). The effects of locus of control on daily exposure. Coping and reactivity to work interpersonal stressors: A diary study. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 29(4), 729–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hassanvand Amouzadeh, M. (2016). A study of relationship between religious attitude and quality of life among welfare organization clients. Journal of Health, 6(5), 488–497. Retrieved From
  36. Hefti, R. (2011). Integrating religion and spirituality into mental health care, psychiatry and psychotherapy. Religions, 2(4), 611–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hicks, J. A., & King, L. A. (2008). Religious commitment and positive mood as information about meaning in life. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hicks, J. A., & King, L. A. (2009). Meaning in life as a subjective judgment and a lived experience. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(4), 638–653. Retrieved from
  39. Holder, M. D., Coleman, B., & Wallace, J. M. (2010). Spirituality, religiousness and happiness in children aged 8–12 years. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2), 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalglesh & M. J. Parveen (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 521–539). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Ismail, A. G., & Haron, N. (2014). Happiness in economics as understood across Ism and religion. Sage Open, 4(4), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jenaabadi, H., & Mohammadi Esfahrood, M. (2014). The Relationship between happiness and defensive methods among primary school teachers in Birjand. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 4(4), 112–115.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, J. W. (1993). Living on the boundary between psychology and religion. Religion Newsletter, 18(4), 1–7.Google Scholar
  45. Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2013). Religiosity’s quadratic moderation effect on the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being around the world. Retrieved from
  46. Kate, L. J., Rebecca, M., & Joseph, H. (2010). Anxiety, depression and students, religiosity. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13(3), 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kawa, M. H., Khan, M. L., Khan, M. O., & Baby, S. (2015). A study of religious orientation and life satisfaction among university students. International of Modern Social Sciences, 4(2), 118–129.Google Scholar
  48. Khodabakhsh, M., Hashemi Razini, H., & Roozbahani, A. (2015). Effectiveness of problem solving training program in happiness and coping styles of individuals suffering from drug abuse. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 3(3), 209–216.Google Scholar
  49. Khosla, M. (2006). Positive affect and coping with stress. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 23(3), 185–192.Google Scholar
  50. Krok, D. (2014a). The role of meaning in life within the relations of religious coping and psychological well-being. Journal of Religion Journal and Health, 54(6), 2292–2308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krok, D. (2014b). The mediating role of coping in the relationships between religiousness and mental health. Archives of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy, 16(2), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krok, D. (2014c). Religiousness and social support as predictive factors for mental health outcomes. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychother, 16(4), 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Krok, D. (2015a). Striving for significance: The relationships between religiousness, spirituality, and meaning in life. Implicit Religion, 18(2), 233–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krok, D. (2015b). Value systems and religiosity as predictors of nonreligious and religious coping with stress in early adulthood. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 17(3), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  56. Lesani, M., & Sharifi Yazdi, A. (2014). The study of relationship between Understanding sentences and Worship God and happiness Leaders Education District 1 in Kerman. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4(3), 115–119.Google Scholar
  57. Levasseur, M., & Couture, M. (2015). Coping strategies associated with participation and quality of life in older adults. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 82(1), 44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Levin, J. (2010). Religion and mental health: Theory and research. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7(2), 102–115.Google Scholar
  59. Levin, J. (2014). Religion and happiness among Israeli Jews: Findings from the ISSP religion III survey. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 593–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewis, C. A., & Cruise, S. (2006). Religion and happiness: Consensus, contradictions, comments and concerns. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(3), 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lewis, C. A., Maltby, J., & Day, L. (2005). Religious orientation, religious coping and happiness among UK adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(5), 1193–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lohman, B. J., & Jarvis, P. A. (2000). Adolescent stressors, coping strategies, and psychological Health studied the family context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(1), 10–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Loukzadeh, Z., & Mazloom Bafrooi, N. (2013). Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses. Journal of Caring Sciences, 2(4), 313–319.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkada, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacCann, C., Fogarty, G. J., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2011). Coping mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maheshwari, S., & Singh, P. (2009). Psychological well-being and pilgrimage: Happiness and life satisfaction of Ardh-Kumbh Mela pilgrims (Kalpvasis) at Prayag. India. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12(4), 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mashili, B., & Heydari, A. (2015). Relationship between religious attitude and social acceptance with happiness among MA. Students Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz 2014–15. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 4(12), 1212–1219.Google Scholar
  68. McClure, R. F., & Lodden, M. (1982). Religious activity, denomination, membership & life satisfaction. Psychology, A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 9(4), 12–17.Google Scholar
  69. Moltafet, G., Mazidi, M., & Sadati, S. (2010). Personality traits, religious orientation and happiness. Procedia Social and Behavior sciences, 9, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mosallanejad, L., Badiye Peyma, Z., & Mahmoodi, Y. (2013). The Association between religious attitude and optimism in students of Nursing and Para medicine Faculty of Jahrom University. Islamic Lifestyle Centered on Health, 1(4), 27–30.Google Scholar
  71. Newman, J. S., & Pargament, K. I. (1990). The role of religion in the problem-solving process. Review of Religious Research, 31, 390–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Niknami, M., Dehghani, F., Bouraki, Sh, Kazemnejad, E., & Soleimani, R. (2015). An assessment of the stressors and ways of coping in Iranian medical sciences students. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 20(4), 521–525.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Nunes, R. P., Melo, R. L. P. D., Júnior, E. G. D. S., & Eulálio, M. D. C. (2016). Relationship between coping and subjective well-being of elderly from the interior of the Brazilian Northeast. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 29. Retrieved From
  74. Pargament, K. I., Ensing, D. S., Falgout, K., Olsen, H., Reilly, B., Van Haitsma, K., et al. (1990). God help me: I. Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(6), 793–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pargament, K. I., Falb, M. D., Ano, G. G., & Wachholtz, A. B. (2013). The religious dimension of coping: Advances in theory, research, and practice. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 560–579). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Park, C. L. (2007). Religiousness/spirituality and health: A meaning systems perspective. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(4), 319–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Park, C. L. (2013a). Religion and meaning. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 357–378). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Park, C. L. (2013b). The meaning making model: A framework for understanding meaning, spirituality, and stress-related growth in health psychology. The European Health Psychologist, 15(2), 40–47.Google Scholar
  79. Park, C. L., Armeli, S., & Tennen, H. (2004). The daily stress and coping process and alcohol use among college students. Journal of the Study of Alcohol, 65(1), 126–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Park, C., Cohen, L. H., & Herb, L. (1990). Intrinsic religiousness and religious coping as life stress moderators for Catholics versus Protestants. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(3), 562–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Paula Júnior, W., & Zanini, D. (2011). Estratégias de coping de pacientes oncológicos em tratamento radioterápico. Psicologia Teoria e Pesquisa, 27(4), 491–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Phillips, D., Chamberlain, A., & Goreczny, A. J. (2014). The relationship between religious orientation and coping styles among older adults and young adults. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 2(1), 29–43.Google Scholar
  83. Pollner, M. (1989). Divine relations, social relations, and well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30(1), 92–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rajaei, A. R., Khoynezhad, Gh R, Javanmard, J., & Abdollahpour, M. (2016). The relation between positive psychological states and coping styles. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 18(1), 57–63.Google Scholar
  85. Sahraian, A., Gholami, A., Javadpour, A., & Omidvar, B. (2013). Association between religiosity and happiness among a group of muslim undergraduate students. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 450–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Salahodjaev, R. (2014). Can religion buy happiness? The case of Singapore. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper, No. 56777. Retrieved from
  87. Schimmel, J. (2009). Development as happiness: The subjective perception of happiness and UNDP’s analysis of poverty, wealth and development. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(1), 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 679–687). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Stewart, M. E., Watson, R., Clark, A., Ebmeier, K. P., & Deary, I. A. (2010). Hierarchy of happiness? Mokken scaling analysis of the Oxford happiness inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(7), 845–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Strumpfer, D. J. W. (2006). The strengths perspective: Fortigenesis in adult life. Social Indicators Research, 77(1), 11–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Taheri, N., Hojati, H., Kamangar, S., Mosavi, Z., Ghorbani, S., Farhadi, S., et al. (2013). Investigating defensive methods employed by nurses in stressful situations. Journal of Health Promotion Management, 2(4), 57–64.Google Scholar
  92. Veenhoven, R. (1997). Advances in understanding happiness. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 18(2), 29–74.Google Scholar
  93. Willard, A. K., & Norenzayan, A. (2013). Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life’s purpose. Cognition, 129(2), 379–391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Yang, K. P., & Mao, X. Y. (2007). A study of nurses, spiritual intelligence: A cross sectional questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(6), 999–1010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Yeganeh, T., & Shaikhmahmoodi, H. (2013). Role of religious orientation in predicting marital adjustment and psychological well-being. Sociology Mind, 3(2), 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yehya, N., & Dutta, M. (2010). Health, religion, and meaning: A culture-centered study of Druze women. Qualitative Health Research, 20(6), 845–858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang, D., Wu, Y., & Pan, X. (2013). Chinese personality traits and mental health: Mediating effect of coping style. Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2(2), 68–72.Google Scholar
  98. Ziapour, S. S., Dusti, Y. A., & Abbasi Asfajir, A. (2014). The correlation between happiness and death anxiety: A case study in health personnel of Zareh hospital of Sari. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 4(2), 172–177. Retrieved from
  99. Zokaee Kheyrabi, M., Yaghoubi, A., & Golestani Bakht, T. (2014). Comparing the personality types, quality of life and coping styles in men consuming crack and healthy individuals. European online Journal of Natural & Social Sciences, 3(4), 1236–1244.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Master of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Semnan Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversitySemnanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Education and PsychologyUniversity of SemnanSemnanIran

Personalised recommendations