Validation of the Italian Version of the Cognitive Distortion Scale as a Measure of Cognitive Bias in a Non-clinical Sample

  • Giulia Anna Aldi
  • Andrea Svicher
  • Fiammetta CosciEmail author


The Cognitive Distortions Scale is a reliable scale assessing cognitive distortions as defined by Beck and Burns. The present study tested the psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency, factor structure, homogeneity, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity) of the Italian version of the CDS in a non-clinical sample. One-hundred subjects, aged between 18 and 64 years, were recruited from the general population of Florence (Italy) and assessed via the Symptom Rating Test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI—form Y), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index 3, the Personal Need for Structure, the White Bear Suppression Inventory, and the Stroop Color and Word Test, Short Version. Internal consistency of the CDS was tested via the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, the factor structure was analyzed via the principal component analysis, homogeneity was tested via the Mokken analysis, concurrent, convergent, discriminant validity was examined via Spearman correlations. The CDS showed a one-factor structure, satisfactory homogeneity for all items (ranging from 0.43 to 0.57) and total score (0.50), excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α  = 0.96), statistically significant concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity. The Italian version of the CDS showed good psychometric properties, similarly to the original English version.


CDS Cognitive Distortions Scale Cognitive distortions Automatic thoughts Cognitive therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

The data were analyzed according to the Italian law on the treatment of personal data (i.e., Law no. 196, June 30, 2003). All participants had to provide and sign a written informed consent including a privacy protection disclaimer.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health SciencesUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and NeuropsychologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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