Self-Reported Dysfunctional Anger in Men and Women at a Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic
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Gender differences in anger and aggression are disputed in the literature. This study examined self-reported gender differences in a clinical sample of individuals referred for concerns about dysfunctional anger on measures of anger and aggression. The sample consisted of adults aged 18 years or over (N = 543; 90 [17%] women and 453 [83%] men) who presented at an outpatient anger clinic for treatment of their dysfunctional anger between 2003 and 2014. We found that women in the psychiatric outpatient sample significantly outscored men on many of the anger variables and reported similar levels of aggression, which contradicts previous reports in nonclinical populations. These results are of clinical importance because women’s dysfunctional anger may be under-reported. Dysfunctional anger screening and treatment may need to be adjusted accordingly based on gender.
KeywordsGender differences Anger Aggression Expression Suppression
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
As this was a retrospective study, formal consent was not required from participants. However, informed consent was still obtained from all participants at intake and in the case that they did not consent—their data was not used for this study.
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