Effect of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Program on Depressive Symptoms Among University Students with Blindness in Nigeria

  • Liziana N. Onuigbo
  • Chiedu Eseadi
  • Samuel Ebifa
  • Uchenna Cosmas Ugwu
  • Charity N. Onyishi
  • Eke Kalu OyeokuEmail author


Depressive symptoms are frequently observed among individuals with vision loss. Exposing university students with blindness to a variety of rational emotive skills that would enable them to manage depression and depressive symptoms could be an important avenue to make them feel less depressed and become more energetic to successfully cope with their academic life. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of group-based rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) intervention on depressive symptoms among selected university students with blindness in Nigeria. To assess the efficacy, a group randomized controlled trial design was employed. Participants (N = 65) recruited from universities in Southeast zone of Nigeria were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 33) and no-intervention control groups (n = 32) after meeting the study inclusionary criteria. REBT Depression Manual was used for the delivery of the intervention while depression was evaluated using Beck Depression Inventory-II. Students in the treatment group took part in the group-based REBT program for a period of 12 weeks and thereafter, a 2-week follow-up meeting, twice per week was done after 2 months of the intervention. All sessions lasted for about 60 min each. Data obtained were analyzed using a 2 × 3 within × between-subjects ANOVA with repeated measures, independent samples t test and paired samples t-test. The study revealed that in comparison to the no-intervention control group, the REBT group had significant reduction in their depression scores both at post-treatment and follow-up evaluations, but no such changes were seen in the control group. Given that an REBT program led to the significant reduction in depression among students with blindness, the implication is that depressive thinking, beliefs, and feelings can be surmounted in this special need population through the application of REBT evidence-based techniques.


BDI-II Depression Nigeria REBT Depression Manual Rational emotive behavior therapy Students with blindness 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Ethical Approval

The Departmental Research Ethics Committee, Department of Educational Foundations at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, provided the ethical approval for the conduct of the current study (REC/EDF/17/00005). We also complied with the ethical standards laid down by the American Psychological Association for conducting research with human subjects (American Psychological Association 2017). This study was also conducted in consonance with the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association 2013). We obtained informed written consents from the Students Affairs Department of the Universities and from the study participants. The study was registered retrospectively in Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (Trial No.: PACTR201803003177455).


  1. Abedini, S., Davachi, A., Sohbaee, F., Mahmoodi, M., & Safa, O. (2007). Prevalence of depression in nursing students in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. Hormozgan Medical Journal, 11(2), 139–145.Google Scholar
  2. Adewuya, A. O., Ola, B. A., Aloba, O. O., Mapayi, B. M., & Oginni, O. O. (2006). Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(8), 674–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexopoulos, G. S. (2005). Depression in the elderly. The Lancet, 365(9475), 1961–1970.Google Scholar
  4. American Addiction Centre. (2018). What is rational emotive behavior therapy? (REBT). Retrieved from Accessed April 14, 2018.
  5. American Foundation for the Blind. (2006). Aging and Vision Loss Fact Sheet. Arlington, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Aniebue, P. N., & Onyema, G. O. (2008). Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Nigerian medical undergraduates. Tropical Doctor, 38(3), 157–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arslan, G., Ayranci, U., Unsal, A., & Arslantas, D. (2009). Prevalence of depression, its correlates among students, and its effect on health-related quality of life in a Turkish university. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 114(3), 170–177.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayoku, F. A. (2006). The visually impaired in the regular classroom. Teaching pupils with special educational needs in the regular UBE classroom. Ibadan: Book Builders.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  11. Bella-Awusah, T., Ani, C., Ajuwon, A., & Omigbodun, O. (2016). Effectiveness of brief school-based, group cognitive behavioural therapy for depressed adolescents in south west Nigeria. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 21(1), 44–50.Google Scholar
  12. Beltman, M. W., Voshaar, R. C. O., & Speckens, A. E. (2010). Cognitive–behavioural therapy for depression in people with a somatic disease: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(1), 11–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhagotra, S., Sharma, A. K., & Raina, B. (2008). Psycho-social adjustments and rehabilitation of the blind. Social Medicine, 10(1), 48–51.Google Scholar
  14. Bolat, N., Dogangün, B., Yavuz, M., Demir, T., & Kayaalp, L. (2011). Depression and anxiety levels and self-concept characteristics of adolescents with congenital complete visual impairment. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 22(2), 77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bragg, M. W. (2005). Vision loss, depression and rehabilitation. International Congress Series, 1282, 40–41. Scholar
  16. Brody, B. L., Gamst, A. C., Williams, R. A., Smith, A. R., Lau, P. W., Dolnak, D., et al. (2001). Depression, visual acuity, comorbidity, and disability associated with age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology, 108(10), 1893–1900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Busari, A. O. (2015). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy;- Impact on depressed outpatients of the State Hospital Oyo State Ibadan, Nigeria. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 5(5), 191–200. Scholar
  18. Centre for Rational–Emotive Behaviour Therapy at the University of Birmingham. (2018). What are irrational beliefs? Retrieved from Accessed April 14, 2018.
  19. Davarmanesh, A., & Barrati, F. (2006). An introduction to the principles of rehabilitation of people with disabilities. Tehran: Roshd.Google Scholar
  20. David, D. (2015). Rational emotive behavior therapy. In R. L. Cautin & S. O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), Encyclopedia of clinical psychology (pp. 1–8). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. David, D., Kangas, M., Schnur, J. B., & Montgomery, G. H. (2004). REBT depression manual: Managing depression using rational emotive behavior therapy. Romania: Babes-Bolyai University.Google Scholar
  22. David, D., Szentagotai, A., Lupu, V., & Cosman, D. (2008). Rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial, posttreatment outcomes, and six-month follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 728–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. DiGiuseppe, R., Doyle, K. A., & Rose, R. D. (2002). Rational emotive behaviour therapy for depression: Achieving unconditional self-acceptance. In M. A. Reinecke & M. R. Davison (Eds.), Comparative treatments of depression (pp. 220–228). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Dunn, O. (1961). Multiple comparisons among means. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 56(293), 52–64.Google Scholar
  25. Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., Huschka, M. M., Lawson, K. L., Novotny, P. J., Sloan, J. A., et al. (2006). A multicenter study of burnout, depression, and quality of life in minority and nonminority US medical students. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 81(11), 1435–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Eller, T., Aluoja, A., Vasar, V., & Veldi, M. (2006). Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems. Depression and Anxiety, 23(4), 250–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellis, A. (1957). Rational psychotherapy and individual psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 13(1), 38–44.Google Scholar
  28. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Oxford, England: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  29. Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy: A comprehensive method of treating human disturbances. New York: Birch Lane Press.Google Scholar
  30. Ellis, A., & Dryden, W. (1987). The practice of rational–emotive therapy (RET). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Eseadi, C., Obidoa, M. A., Ogbuabor, S. E., & Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, A. B. (2017a). Effects of group-focused cognitive–behavioral coaching program on depressive symptoms in a sample of inmates in a Nigerian Prison. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Scholar
  32. Eseadi, C., Onwuka, G. T., Otu, M. S., Umoke, P. C., Onyechi, K. C., Okere, A. U., et al. (2017b). Effects of rational emotive cognitive behavioral coaching on depression among type 2 diabetic inpatients. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 363–382. Scholar
  33. Evans, J. R., Fletcher, A. E., & Wormald, R. P. (2007). Depression and anxiety in visually impaired older people. Ophthalmology, 114(2), 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3. A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. Scholar
  35. Frotani, M. (2005). Depression in students of higher education centers. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research, 18(41–42), 13–27.Google Scholar
  36. Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M. (2000). Exceptional learners: Introduction to special education (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  37. Hayman, K. J., Kerse, N. M., La Grow, S. J., Wouldes, T., Robertson, M. C., & Campbell, A. J. (2007). Depression in older people: Visual impairment and subjective ratings of health. Optometry and Vision Science, 84(11), 1024–1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Heward, W. L. (2000). Blindness and low vision. In W. L. Heward (Ed.), Exceptional children: An introduction to special education (pp. 401–437). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  39. Hoover, M. J. (2003). Knowledge of blindness adaptation technique among rehabilitation undergraduate students. Master Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  40. Horowitz, A., Reinhardt, J. P., & Boerner, K. (2005a). The effect of rehabilitation on depression among visually disabled older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 9(6), 563–570.Google Scholar
  41. Horowitz, A., Reinhardt, J. P., & Kennedy, G. J. (2005b). Major and subthreshold depression among older adults seeking vision rehabilitation services. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13(3), 180–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. IBM Corp. (2011). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, Version 20.0[Computer software]. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  43. Ibrahim, A. K., Kelly, S. J., Adams, C. E., & Glazebrook, C. (2013). A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(3), 391–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Iftene, F., Predescu, E., Stefan, S., & David, D. (2015). Rational–emotive and cognitive–behavior therapy (REBT/CBT) versus pharmacotherapy versus REBT/CBT plus pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder in youth: A randomized clinical trial. Psychiatry Research, 225(3), 687–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ildarabady, E., Firouzkouhi, M. R., Mazloom, S. R., & Navinean, A. (2004). Prevalence of depression among students of Zabol Medical School, 2002. Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, 6(2), 15–21.Google Scholar
  46. Jalali, M. D. M., Moussavi, M. S., Yazdi, S. A. A., & Fadardi, J. S. (2014). Effectiveness of rational emotive behavior therapy on psychological well-being of people with late blindness. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 32(4), 233–247.Google Scholar
  47. Katsikis, D., Kostogiannis, C., & Dryden, W. (2016). A rational–emotive behavior approach in life coaching. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 16(1), 3–18.Google Scholar
  48. Knaus, B. (2006). Depression can be defeated. Retrieved from Accessed September 20, 2017.
  49. Koenes, S. G., & Karshmer, J. F. (2000). Depression: A comparison study between blind and sighted adolescents. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 269–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee, J.-H., Schell, M. J., & Roetzheim, R. (2009). Analysis of group randomized trials with multiple binary endpoints and small number of groups. PLoS ONE, 4(10), e7265.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Lefebvre, M. F. (1981). Cognitive distortion and cognitive errors in depressed psychiatric and low back pain patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49(4), 517–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lei, X. Y., Xiao, L. M., Liu, Y. N., & Li, Y. M. (2016). Prevalence of depression among Chinese university students: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 11(4), e0153454.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Macaskill, N. D., & Macaskill, A. (1996). Rational–emotive therapy plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone in the treatment of high cognitive dysfunction depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20(6), 575–592.Google Scholar
  54. Macavei, B. (2005). The role of irrational beliefs in the rational emotive behavior theory of depression. Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 5(1), 73–81.Google Scholar
  55. McDermut, J. F., Haaga, D. A., & Bilek, L. A. (1997). Cognitive bias and irrational beliefs in major depression and dysphoria. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21(4), 459–476.Google Scholar
  56. Mishara, W. L., & Gbaden, E. A. (2014). The prevalence of depression among the youths as an aftermath of the internal insurgency attacks in Maiduguri, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(10), 32–35.Google Scholar
  57. Mneimne, M. (2014). Demandingness or “The rules of life: Perceived abilities and $0.02. Retrieved from Accessed April 11, 2018.
  58. Mousavi, N. M. (2013). Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) for depression and smoking cessation in infertile women. Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy, 4(4), 114. Scholar
  59. Nelson, R. E. (1977). Irrational beliefs in depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45(6), 1190–1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ogbu, J. E. (2015). Effect of cognitive behavioural technique in reducing depression symptoms among adult learners in Benue state, Nigeria. Doctoral Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Google Scholar
  61. Ogbuanya, T. C., Eseadi, C., Orji, C. T., Anyanwu, J. I., Ede, M. O., & Bakare, J. (2017a). Effect of rational–emotive behavior therapy on negative career thoughts of students in technical colleges in Nigeria. Psychological Reports. Scholar
  62. Ogbuanya, T. C., Eseadi, C., Orji, C. T., Anyanwu, J. I., Joachim, O. C., & Otu, M. S. (2017b). The effect of rational emotive behavior therapy on irrational career beliefs of students of electrical electronics and other engineering trades in technical colleges in Nigeria. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Scholar
  63. Ogbuanya, T. C., Eseadi, C., Orji, C. T., Omeje, J. C., Anyanwu, J. I., Ugwoke, S. C., et al. (2018). Effect of rational–emotive behavior therapy program on the symptoms of burnout syndrome among undergraduate electronics work students in Nigeria. Psychological Reports. Scholar
  64. Okeke, B. A. (2001). Essentials of special education. Nsukka: Afro-Obis Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. Okonkwo, H. C., Fajonyomi, M. G., Omotosho, J. A., Esere, M. O., & Olawuyi, B. O. (2017). Challenges, counselling needs, and coping strategies of students with visual impairment in regular secondary schools in Nigeria. Human and Social Studies, 6(1), 111–137.Google Scholar
  66. Olukolade, O., & Osinowo, H. O. (2017). Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapy on poststroke depression among survivors of first stroke attack in Ibadan, Nigeria. Behavioural Neurology. Scholar
  67. Onyechi, K. C. N., Eseadi, C., Okere, A. U., Onuigbo, L. N., Umoke, P. C., Anyaegbunam, N. J., et al. (2016a). Effects of cognitive behavioral coaching on depressive symptoms in a sample of type 2 diabetic inpatients in Nigeria. Medicine, 95(31), e4444. Scholar
  68. Onyechi, K. C. N., Onuigbo, L. N., Eseadi, C., Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, A. B., Nwaubani, O. O., Umoke, P. C., et al. (2016b). Effects of rational–emotive hospice care therapy on problematic assumptions, death anxiety, and psychological distress in a sample of cancer patients and their family caregivers in Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(9), 929.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Ovuga, E., Boardman, J., & Wasserman, D. (2006). Undergraduate student mental health at Makerere University, Uganda. World Psychiatry, 5(1), 51–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Panday, R., Srivastava, P., Fatima, N., Kiran, M., & Kumar, P. (2015). Depression, anxiety and stress among adolescent girls with congenital visual impairment. Journal of Disability Management and Rehabilitation, 1(1), 21–24.Google Scholar
  71. Peltzer, K., Pengpid, S., Olowu, S., & Olasupo, M. (2013). Depression and associated factors among university students in Western Nigeria. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(3), 459–465.Google Scholar
  72. Pillay, N., Ramlall, S., & Burns, J. K. (2016). Spirituality, depression and quality of life in medical students in KwaZulu-Natal. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 22(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  73. Reinhardt, J. P. (2001). Effects of positive and negative support received and provided on adaptation to chronic visual impairment. Applied Developmental Science, 5(2), 76–85.Google Scholar
  74. Renaud, J., Levasseur, M., Gresset, J., Overbury, O., Wanet-Defalque, M. C., Dubois, M. F., et al. (2010). Health-related and subjective quality of life of older adults with visual impairment. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(11), 899–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rovner, B. W., Casten, R. J., & Tasman, W. S. (2002). Effect of depression on vision function in age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology, 120(8), 1041–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rovner, B. W., & Shmuely-Dulitzki, Y. (1997). Screening for depression in low-vision elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12(9), 955–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rovner, B. W., Zisselman, P. M., & Shmuely-Dulitzki, Y. (1996). Depression and disability in older people with impaired vision: A follow-up study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(2), 181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Saghaei, M. (2004). Random allocation software. Retrieved July 10, 2016 from
  79. Sarokhani, D., Delpisheh, A., Veisani, Y., Sarokhani, M. T., Manesh, R. E., & Sayehmiri, K. (2013). Prevalence of depression among university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis study. Depression Research and Treatment. Scholar
  80. Sava, F., Yates, B., Lupu, V., Szentagotai, A., & David, D. (2009). Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cognitive therapy, rational–emotive–behavior therapy, and fluoxetine (prozac) in treating depression: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 36–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Shmuely-Dulitzki, Y., & Rovner, B. W. (1997). Screening for depression in older persons with low vision: Somatic eye symptoms and the Geriatric Depression Scale. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5(3), 216–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Shmuely-Dulitzki, Y., Rovner, B. W., & Zisselman, P. (1995). The impact of depression on functioning in elderly patients with low vision. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 3(4), 325–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Smith, T. W. (1989). Assessment in rational–emotive therapy: Empirical access to the ABCD model. In M. E. Bernard & R. DiGiuseppe (Eds.), Personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy (Vol. 38, pp. 135–153)., Inside rational–emotive therapy: A critical appraisal of the theory and therapy of Albert Ellis San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  84. Solomon, A., Bruce, A., Gotlib, I. H., & Wind, B. (2003). Individualized measurement of irrational beliefs in remitted depressives. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(4), 439–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Steptoe, A., Tsuda, A., & Tanaka, Y. (2007). Depressive symptoms, socio-economic background, sense of control, and cultural factors in university students from 23 countries. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14(2), 97–107.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Stevelink, S. A., & Fear, N. T. (2016). Psychosocial impact of visual impairment and coping strategies in female ex-service personnel. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. Scholar
  87. Szentagotai, A., David, D., Lupu, V., & Cosman, D. (2008). Rational emotive behavior therapy versus cognitive therapy versus pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder: Mechanisms of change analysis. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice Training, 45(4), 523–538.Google Scholar
  88. Turner, M. J. (2016). Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1423. Scholar
  89. Turner, M., & Barker, J. B. (2013). Examining the efficacy of rational–emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on irrational beliefs and anxiety in elite youth cricketers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 25(1), 131–147.Google Scholar
  90. Ugwoke, S. C., Eseadi, C., Igbokwe, C. C., Chiaha, G. T. U., Nwaubani, O. O., et al. (2017). Effects of a rational–emotive health education intervention on stress management and irrational beliefs among technical college teachers in Southeast Nigeria. Medicine, 96(31), e7658. Scholar
  91. van Straten, A., Geraedts, A., Verdonck-de Leeuw, I., Andersson, G., & Cuijpers, P. (2010). Psychological treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with medical disorders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69(1), 23–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang, C. (1999). Comparative study about rational-emotive therapy for 95 cases of dysthemia disorder. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 13, 172–173.Google Scholar
  93. Wong, H. B., Machin, D., Tan, S. B., Wong, T. Y., & Saw, S. M. (2009). Visual impairment and its impact on health-related quality of life in adolescents. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 147(3), 505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. World Medical Association. (2013). WMA declaration of HelsinkiEthical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Retrieved July 15, 2016 from
  95. Zaborowski, B. (1997). Adjustment to vision loss and blindness: A process of reframing and retraining. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 15(3), 215–221.Google Scholar
  96. Zhaleh, N., Zarbakhsh, M., & Faramarzi, M. (2014). Effectiveness of rational–emotive behavior therapy on the level of depression among female adolescents. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 4(4), 102–107.Google Scholar
  97. Zhang, X., Bullard, K. M., Cotch, M. F., Wilson, M. R., Rovner, B. W., McGwin, G., et al. (2013). Association between depression and functional vision loss in persons 20 years of age or older in the United States, NHANES 2005–2008. JAMA Ophthalmology, 131(5), 573–581.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liziana N. Onuigbo
    • 1
  • Chiedu Eseadi
    • 1
  • Samuel Ebifa
    • 1
  • Uchenna Cosmas Ugwu
    • 2
  • Charity N. Onyishi
    • 1
  • Eke Kalu Oyeoku
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Educational FoundationsUniversity of Nigeria NsukkaEnugu StateNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Human Kinetics and Health EducationUniversity of Nigeria NsukkaEnugu StateNigeria

Personalised recommendations