Authoritative Parenting Behaviors and Marijuana Use Based on Age Among a National Sample of Hispanic Adolescents
Although numerous prevention efforts have been implemented, marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance among Hispanic adolescents nationwide. We sought to determine the influence authoritative parenting behaviors have on lifetime, past year, and past month marijuana use among Hispanic adolescents overall, and then based on age (i.e., 12–13, 14–15, and 16–17 years). We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 3457). We performed a series of logistic regression analyses. Nearly one-fifth (19.5%) of Hispanic participants reported lifetime marijuana use, 14.5% reported past year use, and 7.5% reported past month use. Results indicated that Hispanic adolescents who are at significantly increased risk for reporting lifetime, past year, and past month marijuana use, were those who reported that their parents seldom or never performed the following behaviors: (1) checked if their homework was done, (2) helped them with their homework, (3) limited the amount of TV they watched, (4) told them they did a good job, and (5) told them they were proud of them. There were no relationships between adolescents’ lifetime, past year, or past month marijuana use and whether their parents made their youth do chores or limited their time out on a school night. Regarding age, while results indicated that most authoritative parenting behaviors have a significant effect against marijuana use, the protective effect diminished with age, with the exception of the relationship between adolescents’ past month marijuana use and whether their parents checked to see if their homework was done. Substance use prevention programs for this population should start in early adolescence and involve and educate parents on adopting authoritative parenting behaviors.
KeywordsMarijuana use Hispanic Adolescence Parenting behaviors
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
- American Lung Association. (2016). Marijuana and lung health. Date retrieved October 1, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/smoking-facts/marijuana-and-lung-health.html.
- Calafat, A., García, F., Juan, M., Becoña, E., & Fernández-Hermida, J. R. (2014). Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,138, 185–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.02.705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2017). 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth risk behavior surveillance system—United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,67(8), 1–114.Google Scholar
- Chromy, J. R., Feder, M., Gfoerer, J., Hirsch, E., Kennet, J., Morton, K. B., … Yu, F. (2010). Reliability of key measures in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4425, Methodology Series M-8 ed.). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.Google Scholar
- Fendrich, M., Johnson, T. P., Sudman, S., Wislar, J. S., & Spiehler, V. (1999). Validity of drug use reporting in a high-risk community sample: A comparison of cocaine and heroin survey reports with hair tests. American Journal of Epidemiology,149(10), 955–962. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009740.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gfroerer, J., Eyerman, J., & Chromy, J. (2002). Redesigning an ongoing national household survey: Methodological issues (HHS Publication No. SMA 03-3768 ed.). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.Google Scholar
- Khalsa, J. H., Genser, S., Francis, H., & Martin, B. (2002). Clinical consequences of marijuana. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology,42(S1), 7S–10S. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.2002.tb05997.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- King, K. A., Vidourek, R. A., & Merianos, A. L. (2015a). Parent protective factors for Hispanic youth’s engagement in risky behaviors: Lessons learned from evidence-based research. In N. V. Roman (Ed.), Parenting: Behaviors, cultural influences and impact on childhood health and wellbeing (pp. 55–69). New York, NY: NOVA Science Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
- King, K. A., Vidourek, R. A., Merianos, A. L., & Bartsch, L. A. (2015c). The impact parenting behaviors have on recent alcohol use and binge drinking among adolescents based on age. Vulnerable Child and Youth Studies,10(4), 300–313. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450128.2015.1103390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Latendresse, S. J., Rose, R. J., Viken, R. J., Pulkkinen, L., Kaprio, J., & Dick, D. M. (2008). Parenting mechanisms in links between parents’ and adolescents’ alcohol use behaviors. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research,32(2), 322–330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00583.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of family: Parent-child interaction. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Meier, M. H., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Ambler, A., Harrington, H., Houts, R., et al. (2012). Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,109(40), E2657–E2664. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206820109.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- National Conference of State Legislatures. (2018). State medical marijuana laws. Date retrieved November 01, 2019. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx.
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2013). Underage drinking. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Date retrieved October 1, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/brochures-and-fact-sheets/underage-drinking.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2015). Research report series: Marijuana. National Institutes of Health, Publication No. 15-3859. Date retrieved October 1, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/letter-director.
- Plancherel, B., Bolognini, M., Stéphan, P., Laget, J., Chinet, L., Bernard, M., et al. (2005). Adolescents’ beliefs about marijuana use: A comparison of regular users, past users and never/occasional users. Journal of Drug Education,35(2), 131–146. https://doi.org/10.2190/DMDW-X35X-P6AV-6F4L.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sartaj, B., & Aslam, N. (2010). Role of authoritative and authoritarian parenting in home, health and emotional adjustment. Journal of Behavioural Sciences,20(1), 47–66.Google Scholar
- Spoth, R. L., Randall, G. K., Trudeau, L., Shin, C., & Redmond, C. (2008). Substance use outcomes 5½ years past baseline for partnership-based, family-school preventive interventions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence,96(1), 57–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.01.023.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. ([SAMHSA]. (2013). Substance abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Survey on Drug Use and Health methodological resource book. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar