Advertisement

Biological and geochemical changes in shallow lakes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands: a response to recent warming

  • Kristopher R. HadleyEmail author
  • Andrew M. Paterson
  • Kathleen M. Rühland
  • Hilary White
  • Brent B. Wolfe
  • Wendel Keller
  • John P. Smol
Original paper
  • 77 Downloads

Abstract

The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) region of the far north of Ontario (Canada) is expected to undergo considerable physical, chemical and biological change as a result of ongoing climatic change. Previous research in the region has shown marked limnological changes during the past ~ 20 years in relatively deep lakes that have been attributed to increased air temperatures and changes in sea ice phenology in Hudson Bay since the mid-1990s. Here, we present diatom assemblage, primary production and geochemical data from lake sediments documenting recent limnological change in two shallow sub-arctic lakes in the Sutton River region of the HBL. Both lakes recorded increased whole-lake production and diatom diversity changes that are consistent with a longer ice-free period and growing season. Changes in diatom composition at Wolfgang Lake were characterized by a response amongst benthic/periphytic taxa whereas a modest increase in planktonic diatoms was observed at Sam Lake. Geochemical changes (δ15N, C/N and %N) were temporally coherent with diatom assemblage changes, but showed different responses in the two study lakes. Thus, although the biological and geochemical changes were consistent with recent warming, differences in the nature and timing of these shifts illustrate the heterogeneous nature of shallow lakes, and suggest that local (catchment-specific) factors are important determinants of the trajectory of limnological change in these sensitive systems.

Keywords

Diatoms Climate change Stable isotopes Chlorophyll a Paleolimnology Lake sediments 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change through the Climate Change and Multiple Stressor Aquatic Research Program at Laurentian University, as well as the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. We would also like to thank Albert and Gilbert Chookomolin for their assistance with field surveys, and Hearst Air for their professional service and safe access to these remote lakes.

References

  1. Antoniades D, Hamilton PB, Douglas MSV, Smol JP (2008) Diatoms of North America: The freshwater floras of Prince Patrick, Ellef Ringnes and northern Ellesmere Islands from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Koeltz Scientific Books, KoenigsteinGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleby PG (2001) Chronostratigraphic techniques in recent sediments. In: Last WM, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments: basin analysis, coring, and chronological techniques, vol 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 171–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battarbee RW, Jones VJ, Flower RJ, Cameron NG, Bennion H, Carvalho L, Juggins S (2001) Diatoms. In: Smol JP, Birks HJB, Last VM (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments, vol 3. Terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 155–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bos DG, Pellatt MG (2012) The water chemistry of shallow ponds around Wapusk National Park of Canada, Hudson Bay Lowlands. Can Water Res J 37:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouchard F, Turner KW, MacDonald LA, Deakin C, White H, Farquharson N, Medeiros AS, Wolfe BB, Hall RI, Pienitz R, Edwards TWD (2013) Vulnerability of shallow subarctic lakes to evaporate and desiccate when snowmelt runoff is low. Geophys Res Lett 40:6112–6117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bramburger AJ, Reavie ED, Sgro GV, Estepp LR, Shaw Chraïbi VL, Pillsbury RW (2017) Decreases in diatom cell size during the 20th century in the Laurentian Great Lakes: a response to warming? J Plank Res 39:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carey SK (2003) Dissolved organic carbon fluxes in a discontinuous permafrost subarctic alpine catchment. Perm Periglac Proc 14:161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman WL, Walsh JE (1993) Recent variations of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes. Bull Am Meteor Soc 74:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cho K-J (2000) Epipsammic diatom flora of the Pukchong-Namdaechon River of North Korea. Algae 15:233–254Google Scholar
  10. Douglas MSV, Smol JP, Blake W Jr (1994) Marked post-18th century environmental change in high Arctic ecosystems. Science 266:416–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunn C, Freeman C (2011) Peatlands: our greatest source of carbon credits? Carb Manage 2:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fallu MA, Pienitz R, Walker IR, Lavoie M (2005) Paleolimnology of a shrub-tundra lake and response of aquatic and terrestrial indicators to climate change in arctic Québec, Canada. Palaeogeog Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 215:183–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaston AJ, Smith PA, Provencher JF (2012) Discontinuous change in ice cover in Hudson Bay in the 1990s and some consequences for marine birds and their prey. ICES J Mar Sci 69:1218–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glew JR (1988) A portable extruding device for close interval sectioning of unconsolidated core samples. J Paleolimnol 1:235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glew JR (1989) A new trigger mechanism for sediment samplers. J Paleolimnol 2:241–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gorham E (1964) Morphometric control of annual heat budgets in temperate lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 9:525–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gough WA, Cornwell AR, Tsuji LJS (2004) Trends in seasonal sea ice duration in southwestern Hudson Bay. Arctic 57:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grimm EC (1987) CONISS: A FORTRAN 77 program for stratigraphically constrained cluster analysis by the method of incremental sum of squares. Comput Geosci 13:13–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hadley KR, Paterson AM, Stainsby EA, Michelutti N, Yao H, Rusak JA, Ingram R, McConnell C, Smol JP (2014) Climate warming alters thermal stability but not stratification phenology in a small north-temperate lake. Hydrol Proc 28:6309–6319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hargan KE, Nelligan C, Jeziorski A, Rühland KM, Paterson AM, Keller W, Smol JP (2016) Tracking the long-term responses of diatoms and cladocerans to climate warming and human influences across lakes of the Ring of Fire in the Far North of Ontario, Canada. J Paleolimnol 56:153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hanna M (1990) Evaluation of models predicting mixing depth. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47:940–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harrell Jr FE (2012) Harrell Miscellaneous. http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/wiki/Main/Hmisc
  23. Hochheim KP, Barber DG (2010) Atmospheric forcing of sea ice in Hudson Bay during the fall period, 1980–2005. J Geophys Res 115:C05009.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hochheim KP, Barber DG (2014) An update on the ice climatology of the Hudson Bay system. Arct Antarct Alp Res 46:66–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hoover C (2010) Hudson Bay ecosystem: past, present, and future. In: Ferguson SH, Loseto LL, Mallory ML (eds) A little less Arctic: top predators in the world’s largest Northern Inland Sea, Hudson Bay. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ingram RG, Girard RE, Paterson AM, Sutey P, Evans D, Xu R, Rusak J, Thomson C, Masters C (2013) Lake sampling methods. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset Environmental Science Centre, DorsetGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones JB Jr, Petrone KC, Finlay JC, Hinzman LD, Bolton WR (2005) Nitrogen loss from watersheds of interior Alaska underlain with discontinuous permafrost. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl021734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Juggins S (2009) Analysis of Quaternary science data. http://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/staff/stephen.juggins/
  29. Kawahigashi M, Kaiser K, Kalbitz K, Rodionov A, Guggenberger G (2004) Dissolved organic matter in small streams along a gradient from discontinuous to continuous permafrost. Glob Change Biol 10:1576–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1986–1991) Bacillariophyceae. In: Ettl H, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, vol 2. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart/Jena, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  31. Laing TE, Pienitz R, Payette S (2002) Evaluation of limnological responses to recent environmental change and caribou activity in the Rivière George Region, northern Québec, Canada. Arct Antarc Alp Res 34:454–464Google Scholar
  32. MacLean R, Oswood MW, Irons JG, McDowell WH (1999) The effect of permafrost on stream biogeochemistry: a case study of two streams in the Alaskan (USA) taiga. Biogeochemistry 47:239–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mallory ML, Loseto LL, Ferguson SH (2010) The future of Hudson Bay: new directions and research needs. In: Ferguson SH, Loseto LL, Mallory ML (eds) A little less Arctic: top predators in the world’s largest northern Inland Sea, Hudson Bay. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 291–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mann DG, Chepurnov VA, Droop SJM (1999) Sexuality, incompatibility, size variation, and preferential polyandry in natural populations and clones of Sellaphora pupula (Bacillariophyceae). J Phycol 35:152–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Martini IP (2006) The cold-climate peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowland, Canada: brief overview of recent work. In: Martini IP, Martinez Cortizas A, Chesworth W (eds) Peatlands: evolution and records of environmental and climate changes. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 53–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Matthews E (1994) Nitrogenous fertilizers: global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia. Glob Biogeochem Cyc 8:411–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McLaughlin J, Webster K (2014) Effects of climate change on peatlands in the far north of Ontario, Canada: a synthesis. Arct Antarct Alp Res 46:84–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Michelutti N, Smol JP (2016) Visible spectroscopy reliably tracks trends in paleo-production. J Paleolimnol 56:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Michelutti N, Blais JM, Cumming BF, Paterson AM, Rühland KM, Wolfe AP, Smol JP (2010) Do spectrally inferred determinations of chlorophyll a reflect trends in lake trophic status? J Paleolimnol 43:205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nelligan C, Jeziorski A, Rühland KM, Paterson AM, Smol JP (2016) Managing lake trout lakes in a warming world: a paleolimnological assessment of nutrients and lake production at three Ontario sites. Lake Reserv Manage 32:315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. O’Beirne MD, Werne JP, Hecky RE, Johnson TC, Katsev S, Reavie ED (2017) Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in lake superior. Nat Commun 8:15713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. O’Reilly CM, Sharma S, Gray DK, Hampton SE, Read JS and 59 others (2015) Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe. Geophys Res Lett 42.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015gl066235
  43. O’Donnell JA, Jones JB (2006) Nitrogen retention in the riparian zone of catchments underlain by discontinuous permafrost. Freshw Biol 51:854–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Obbard ME, Cattet MRL, Moody T, Walton LR, Potter D, Inglis J, Chenier C (2006) Temporal trends in the body condition of southern Hudson Bay polar bears. Climate change research information note, No 3. Applied Research and Development Branch, Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste. Marie, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  45. Ontario Ministry of the Environment (1983) Handbook of analytical methods for environmental samples, vols. 1 and 2. Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Sudbury, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  46. Paterson AM, Betts AA, Smol JP, Zeeb BA (2003) Diatom and chrysophyte algal response to long-term PCB contamination from a point-source in northern Labrador, Canada. WASP 145:377–393Google Scholar
  47. Paterson AM, Keller W, Rühland KM, Jones FC, Winter JG (2014) First assessment of regional water chemistry and plankton from lakes near the Sutton River, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada. Arct Antarct Alp Res 46:121–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Paterson AM, Rühland KM, Anstey CV, Smol JP (2017) Climate as a driver of increasing algal production in Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada. Lake Reserv Manage 33:403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ponader K, Pienitz R, Vincent W, Gajewski K (2002) Limnological conditions in a subarctic lake (northern Québec, Canada) during the late Holocene: analyses based on fossil diatoms. J Paleolimnol 27:353–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reavie ED, Sgro GV, Estepp LR, Bramburger AJ, Shaw Chraïbi VL, Pillsbury RW, Cai M, Stow CA, Dove A (2017) Climate warming and changes in Cyclotella sensu lato in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 62:768–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Regehr EV, Lunn NJ, Amstrup SC, Stirling I (2007) Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. J Wild Manage 71:2673–2683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roberts KE, Lamoureux SF, Kyser TK, Muir DCG, Lafrenière Iqaluk D, Pieńkowski AJ, Normandeau A (2017) Climate and permafrost effects on the chemistry and ecosystems of high Arctic Lakes. Sci Rep 7:13292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roberts S, Jones VJ, Allen JRM, Huntley B (2015) Diatom response to mid-Holocene climate in three small Arctic lakes in northernmost Finnmark. Holocene 25:911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rühland KM, Paterson AM, Smol JP (2008) Hemispheric-scale patterns of climate-related shifts in planktonic diatoms from North American and European lakes. Glob Change Biol 14:2740–2754Google Scholar
  55. Rühland KM, Paterson AM, Keller W, Michelutti N, Smol JP (2013) Global warming triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium. Proc Roy Soc Lond Ser B 280:20131887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rühland KM, Hargan KE, Jeziorski A, Paterson AM, Keller W, Smol JP (2014) A multi-trophic exploratory survey of recent environmental change using lake sediments in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario. Arct Antarct Alp Res 46:139–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rühland KM, Paterson AM, Smol JP (2015) Lake diatom responses to warming: reviewing the evidence. J Paleolimnol 54:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schelske CL, Peplow A, Brenner M, Spence MCN (1994) Low-background gamma counting: applications for 210Pb dating of sediments. J Paleolimnol 10:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sheldrick WF (1987) World nitrogen survey, World Bank Technical Paper 59. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  60. Shinneman ALC, Umbanhowar CE Jr, Edlund MB, Hobbs WO, Camill P, Geiss C (2016) Diatom assemblages reveal regional-scale differences in lake responses to recent climate change at the boreal-tundra ecotone, Manitoba, Canada. J Paleolimnol 56:275–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Siver PA (1991) The biology of Mallomonas: morphology, taxonomy and ecology. Kluwer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smol JP (1988) Paleoclimate proxy data from freshwater arctic diatoms. Verh Int Verein Limnol 23:837–844Google Scholar
  63. Smol JP (2016) Arctic and sub-Arctic shallow lakes in a multiple-stressor world: a paleoecological perspective. Hydrobiology 778:253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smol JP, Douglas MSV (2007a) From controversy to consensus: making the case for recent climatic change in the Arctic using lake sediments. Front Ecol Environ 5:466–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smol JP, Douglas MSV (2007b) Crossing the final ecological threshold in high Arctic ponds. PNAS 104:12395–12397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smol JP, Wolfe AP, Birks HJB, Douglas MSV, Jones VJ, Korhola A, Pienitz R, Ruhland KM, Sorvari S, Antoniades D, Brooks SJ, Fallu M-A, Hughes M, Keatley BE, Laing TE, Michelutti N, Nazarova L, Nyman M, Paterson AM, Perren B, Quinlan R, Rautio M, Saulnier-Talbot E, Siitonen S, Solovieva N, Weckstrom J (2005) Climate-driven regime shifts in the biological communities of Arctic lakes. PNAS 102:4397–4402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sorvari S, Korhola A, Thompson R (2002) Lake diatom response to recent Arctic warming in Finnish Lapland. Glob Change Biol 8:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stainsby EA, Winter JG, Jarjanazi H, Paterson AM, Evans DO, Young JD (2011) Changes in the thermal stability of Lake Simcoe from 1980 to 2008. JGLR 37:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Talbot MR (2001) Nitrogen isotopes in paleolimnology. In: Last WM, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments: physcial and geochemical methods, vol 2. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 401–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Taranu ZE, Zurawell RW, Pick F, Gregory-Eaves I (2012) Predicting cyanobacterial dynamics in the face of global change: the importance of scale and environmental context. Glob Change Biol 18:3477–3490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tarnocai C (2006) The effect of climate change on carbon in Canadian peatlands. Glob Planet Change 53:222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P (2002) CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user’s guide: software for canonical community ordination v.4.5. Microcomputer PowerGoogle Scholar
  73. Timms BV (1975) Basic limnology of two crater lakes in Western Victoria. Proc R Soc Victoria 87:159–165Google Scholar
  74. Vet R, Artz RS, Carou S, Shaw M, Ro C-U, Aas W, Baker A, Bowersox VC, Dentener F, Galy-Lacaux C, Hou A, Pienaar JJ, Gillett R, Forti MC, Gromov S, Hara H, Khodzher T, Mahowald NM, Nickovic S, Rao PSP, Reid NW (2014) A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus. Atmos Environ 93:3–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vincent WF, Laurion I, Pienitz R, Walter Anthony KM (2013) Climate impacts on Arctic lake ecosystems. In: Goldman CR, Kumagai M, Robarts RD (eds) Climatic change and global warming of inland waters: impacts and mitigation for ecosystems and societies. Wiley, New York, pp 27–42Google Scholar
  76. Weckström K, Weckström J, Huber K, Kamenik C, Schmidt R, Slavenmoser W, Rieradevall M, Weisse T, Psenner R, Kurmayer R (2016) Impacts of climate warming on Alpine lake biota over the past decade. Arct Antarct Alp Res 48:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. White J, Hall RI, Wolfe BB, Light EM, Macrae ML, Fishback L (2014) Hydrological connectivity influences seasonal patterns of limnological conditions in shallow tundra ponds of the western Hudson Bay Lowlands. Arct Antarct Alp Res 46:218–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wolfe AP, Van Gorp AC, Baron JS (2003) Recent ecological and biogeochemical changes in alpine lakes of Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA): a response to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Geobiology 1:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wolfe AP, Cooke CA, Hobbs WA (2006) Are current rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition influencing lakes in the eastern Canadian Arctic? Arct Antarct Alp Res 38:465–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wolfe BB, Edwards TWD, Aravena R (1999) Changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling during tree-line retreat recorded in the isotopic context of lacustrine organic matter, western Taimyr Peninsula, Russia. Holocene 9:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wolfe BB, Edwards TWD, Beuning KRM, Elgood RJ (2001) Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cellulose: methods and applications. In: Last WM, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments, vol 2. Physical and chemical techniques. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 373–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wolfe BB, Light EM, Macrae ML, Hall RI, Eichel K, Jasechko S, White J, Fishback L, Edwards TWD (2011) Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay lowlands. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl04976 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristopher R. Hadley
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andrew M. Paterson
    • 1
  • Kathleen M. Rühland
    • 2
  • Hilary White
    • 3
  • Brent B. Wolfe
    • 3
  • Wendel Keller
    • 4
  • John P. Smol
    • 2
  1. 1.Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate ChangeDorsetCanada
  2. 2.Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of BiologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesWilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada
  4. 4.Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Vale Living with Lakes CentreLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada

Personalised recommendations