The Protein Journal

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 333–352 | Cite as

Variability of Some Milk-Associated Genes and Proteins in Several Breeds of Saudi Arabian Camels

  • Elrashdy M. RedwanEmail author
  • Salah Korim
  • Amro Samra
  • Yasser Saad
  • Hussein A. Amhedar
  • Vladimir N. UverskyEmail author


To gain knowledge on the molecular basis of diversity of several clans of Saudi camel (Camelus dromedarius) characterization of these animals was conducted at both genetic and protein levels. To this end, blood and milk samples were collected from several camel breeds at different Saudi Arabia locations (northern Jeddah, Riyadh, and Alwagh governorates). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood of four Saudi camel breeds (Majahem, Safra, Wadha, and Hamara), and DNA fragments of the casein and α-lactalbumin genes were amplified. The retrieved DNA sequences were analyzed for genetic variability. The inter-simple sequence repeat technique was used for confirming the relationships among the analyzed camel breeds, and the PCR–RFLP with two restriction enzymes was utilized for exploring their molecular variations. The number of haplotypes, gene diversity, nucleotide diversity, average number of nucleotide differences, and sequence conservation were calculated for all the analyzed DNA sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the analyzed DNA sequences. A group of neighbor joining trees was built for inferring the evolutionary variations among the studied animals. Protein profiling of milk from different camel clans was also conducted, and differences between and within the Saudi camel clans were easily found based on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) profiles using ampholytes with different IEF range. This study revealed that analyzed camel breeds show low levels of genetic differences. This may be a reflection of the evolutionary history of C. dromedarius that was domesticated based on a highly homogeneous ancestor ecotype.


Camel Milk Variability Camel breeds alpha-lactalbumin casein polymorphism 



This work was funded by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology General Directorate of Research Grants Programs under the Grant No. (A.B-35-195).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors Elrashdy M. Redwan, Salah Korim, Amro Samra, Yasser Saad, Hussein A. Amhedar and Vladimir N. Uversky declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Research Involving Human Participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10930_2018_9782_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1292 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elrashdy M. Redwan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Salah Korim
    • 1
  • Amro Samra
    • 1
  • Yasser Saad
    • 1
  • Hussein A. Amhedar
    • 1
  • Vladimir N. Uversky
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Biology Department, Faculty of ScienceKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Therapeutic and Protective Proteins Laboratory, Protein Research Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research InstituteCity for Scientific Research and Technology ApplicationsNew Borg EL-ArabEgypt
  3. 3.Institute for Biological Instrumentation of the Russian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia
  4. 4.Department of Molecular Medicine and USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Research Institute, Morsani College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

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