Cellulose is a renewable, sustainable, and high available biopolymer; their common form is the type-I polymorph. However, polymorphic changes are associated with different properties and a wide range of applications. In this study, we proposed a new method to prepare polymorphic cellulose nanostructures (CNSs): first, the CNS were isolated, and then the polymorphs were converted. CNS-I (type-I), CNS-II (type-II), and CNS-III (type-III) were successfully obtained, and the structure, crystallinity, superficial characteristic, morphology, and thermal stability were evaluated. The results showed that CNS-II and CNS-III are more amorphous than CNS-I due to the strong reagents used for the polymorphic conversion, which results in a swelling, increased chain spacing, and structural disorganization. This effectively changed the morphology of the CNS, from cellulose nanocrystals from irregular quasi-spherical nanoparticles. The proposed method allows a wide range of applications, from package and nanocomposites with CNS-I due to its high crystallinity and crystal morphology, to drug carrier, food thickener and biomedical products for CNS-II and CNS-III due to its quasi-spherical shape and more amorphous structure.
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The authors thank the financial support provided by FAPESP (2018/11277-7, 22035-4 and 2018/25239-0), CNPq, CAPES, NSF-CREST #1735971, and the Multiuser Experimental Center of the Federal University of ABC (CEM-UFABC).
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de Souza, A.G., Junqueira, M.T., de Lima, G.F. et al. A New Proposal of Preparation of Different Polymorphs of Nanocellulose from Eucalyptus citriodora. J Polym Environ (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-020-01672-4
- Cellulosic polymorphs
- Cellulose nanostructures
- Eucalyptus residues
- Biomass valorization