Advertisement

Modified Biopolymer (Chitin–Chitosan Derivatives) for the Removal of Heavy Metals in Poultry Wastewater

  • Ernestine AtanganaEmail author
  • Paul J. Oberholster
Original Paper
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

In the meat production industry, large volumes of wastewater are generated containing great quantities of organic matter that requires y safe disposal or utilization. As a result, management of poultry wastewater is of great concern worldwide. However, problems associated with wastewater disposal are a well-known phenomenon. Nevertheless finding solutions to treat different waste types are not always an orderly method to solve and this have cause a lot of adverse effects on the receiving environment. In the current study, chitosan was synthesized from shrimp chitin to determine its usefulness in removing heavy metals from meat wastewater. Factors for example yield, moisture and ash content and deacetylation (DDA) were tested as well and results showed that chitosan was a source from shrimp chitin. Structural properties such FTIR, SEM and XRD were used to determine the structural morphology, and the final results implies successful isolation of chitosan. Modification of chitosan product was then accomplished via cross-linked chitosan with a series of cross-linking agent; glutaraldehyde, epichlorohydrine, p-benzoquinone s-methylbutylamine and 1,3-dichloroaceone adsorbents. Satisfactory percentages were obtained from shrimp chitosan cross-linked s-methylbutylamine, glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrine (63–72%) whereas lower yield was observed from chitosan starch cross-linked p-benzoquinone (57%). The usefulness of the chitosan modified products were then investigated in purifying wastewater effluent using HG-AAS. Results of qualitative and quantitative analysis on the elemental content showed the presence of the following elements present in different concentrations: Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in the meat wastewaters. Lower concentration ranges (0.01–0.9 mg/L) of these heavy metals were observed for Pb(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) after testing the different chitosan cross-linked products (A–E). Among all the metals tested, shrimp chitosan cross-linked with 1,3-dichloroacetone was found to be the most effective product for heavy metals removal. These results also revealed that there is a decrease in the amount of heavy metals present in meat wastewater effluent.

Keywords

Chitosan Chitosan-starch cross-linked derivatives Poultry meat wastewater effluents Heavy metals removal Qualitative and quantitative analysis Hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors proclaims that there are no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Chukwu O, Adeoye PA, Chidiebere I (2011) Abattoir wastes generation, management and the environment: a case of Minna, North Central Nigeria. Int. J. Biosci. 1:100–109Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mouzdahir Y, Elmchaouri A, Mahboub R, Gil A, Korili SA (2010) Equilibrium modelling for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on activated clay minerals. Desalination 250:335–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Princeton University Water Resources Program (1984) Groundwater Contamination from Hazardous Wastes. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Us EPA 2005 (2016) Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Risk Assessment Forum, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.EPA/630/P-03/001F.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adeyemo OK (2002) Unhygiene operation of a city abattoir in south western Nigeria: environment implication. Afr J Environ Assess Manage 4:23–28Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nkansah MA, Ansah JK (2014) Determination of Cd, Hg, As, Cr and Pb levels in meat from the Kumasi Central Abattoir. Int J Sci Res Publ 4:1–4Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anthony RG, Kozlowski R (1982) Heavy metals in tissues of small mammals inhabiting wastewater-irrigated habitats. J Environ Qual 11:20–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Denkbas EB, Odabasi M, Kiliçay E, Özdemir N (2002) Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption with chitosan microspheres. J Appl Polym Sci 86:3035–3039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Urbaniak M, Sakson G (1999) Preserving sludge from meat industry waste waters through lactic fermentation. Process Biochem 34:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang Y, Xue Q, Li F (2019) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by capacitive deionization using polypyrrole/chitosan composite electrode. Adsorp Sci Technol 37(3–4):205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aktaş N, Gürses A (2005) Moisture adsorption properties and adsorption isosteric heat of dehydrated slices of Pastirma (Turkish dry meat product). Meat Sci 71:571–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vieira RS, Beppu MM (2005) Mercury ion recovery using natural and cross-linked chitosan membranes. Adsorption 11:731–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen RH (1998) Manipulation and application of chain flexibility of chitosan. In: Chen RH, Chen HC (eds) Advances in chitin science, vol III. Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, pp 39–46Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen A, Yang C, Chen C, Chen CW (2009) The chemically cross-linked metal-complexed chitosan for comparative adsorptions of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous medium. J Hazard Mater 163:1068–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Igberase E, Osifo OP (2019) Mathematical modelling and stimulation of packed bed column for the efficient adsorption of Cu(II) ions using modified bio-polymeric material. J. Environ Chem Eng 7:103–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Igberase E, Ofomaja A, Osifo PO (2019) Enhanced heavy metal ions adsorption by 4-animobenzoic acid grafted on chitosan/epichlorohydrine composite: kinetic, isotherms thermodynamics and desorption studies. Int J Biol Macromol 123:664–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Atangana E, Chiweshe TT, Roberts H (2019) Modification of novel chitosan-starch cross-linked derivatives polymers: synthesis and characterization. J Polym Environ 27:979–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alabaraoye E, Achilonu M, Roberts H (2017) Biopolymer (chitin) from various marine seashell wastes. J Polym Environ 26:2207–2218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Black CA (1965) Methods of soil analysis: part I physical and mineralogical properties. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 671–698Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jiao TF, Zhou J, Zhou J, Gao L, Xing Y, Li X (2011) Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-based schiff base compounds with aromatic substituent groups. Iran Polym J 20:123–136Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gamage A, Shahidi F (2007) Use of chitosan for the removal of metal ion contaminants and proteins from water. Food Chem 104:989–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Q, Dunn ET, Grandmaison EW, Goosen MFA (1992) Applications and properties of chitosan. J Bioact Compat Polym 7:370–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martino AD, Sittinger M, Risbud MV (2005) Chitosan: a versatile biopolymer for orthopedic tissue engineering. Biomaterials 26:5983–5990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khan T, Peh K, Che’ng HS (2002) Reporting degree of deacetylation values of chitosan: the influence of analytical methods. J Pharm Pharm Sci 5:205–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zvezdova D (2010) Synthesis and characterization of chitosan from marine sources in Black Sea. Sci Work Russ Univ 49:65–69Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wada M, Saito Y (2001) Lateral thermal expansion of chitin crystals. J Polym Sci Part B 39:168–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feng F, Liu Y, Hu K (2004) Influence of alkali-freezing treatment on the solid state structure of chitin. Carbohyd Res 339:2321–2324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    World Health Organization (2018) A global overview of national regulations and standards for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Atangana E, Chiweshe TT (2019) Metal adosrbance in abattoir wastewater using crosslinked chitosan derivatives. J Polym Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-019-01548-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paar A (1998) Microwave sample preparation system’—instruction handbook. Anton Paar GmbH, Graz, p 128Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nolan KR (1983) Copper toxicity syndrome. J Orthomol Psychiat 12:270–282Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Galadima A, Garba ZN (2012) Heavy metals pollution in Nigeria: causes and consequences. Pollution 45:7919–7922Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Okegye JI, Gajere JN (2015) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface and ground water resources around Udege Mbeki Mining District, North-Central Nigeria. J Geol Geop 4:1–7Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khansari FE, Ghazi-Khansari M, Abdollahi M (2005) Heavy metals content of canned tuna fish. Food Chem 93:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Järup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tiwana NS, Jerath N, Singh G, Ravleen M (2005) Heavy metal pollution in Punjab rivers. Newslett Environ Inf Syst 3(1):3–7Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moore JW, Ramamoorthy S (1984) Heavy metals in natural waters. Appl Monit Impact Assess. 28:246Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Atangana E (2019) Adsorption of Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using chitosan cross-linked formaldehyde adsorbent to protect the environment. J Polym Environ 27:2281–2291CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Centre for Environmental ManagementUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations