Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 2886–2894 | Cite as

Property Investigation of Poly (Ethylene Co-vinyl Acetate)/Poly (l-Lactic Acid)/Organo Clay Nanocomposites

  • Hooman Torabi
  • Ahmad Ramazani SaadatAbadiEmail author
Original paper


In this study, EVAc/PLA/organo clay nanocomposites were prepared via solution mixing method. The SEM images were used to investigate the morphology of nanocomposites revealing no phase separation or agglomeration of disperse phase in EVAc/PLA blends and nanocomposites. SAXS spectra confirmed the intercalated morphology of nanocomposites. Soil burial test were carried out and the rate of degradation of the samples were measured indirectly. Oxygen gas permeability of EVAc was slightly decreased by adding PLA to the matrix, when small loads of clay caused dramatic improvement in barrier properties. Melt rheological frequency sweep test illustrated the compatibility of EVAc with low contents of PLA. Tensile test cleared that increasing PLA’s content and clay’s load in EVAc results in increase in tensile strength and modulus of the composite.


Polymer nanocomposite EVAc/PLA blend Clay nanoparticles Biodegradable 



  1. 1.
    Geyer R, Jambeck JR, Law KL (2017) Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Sci Adv 3(7):e1700782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jambeck JR, Geyer R, Wilcox C, Siegler TR, Perryman M, Andrady A et al (2015) Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science 347(6223):768–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reed AM, Gilding DK (1981) Biodegradable polymers for use in surgery—poly (glycolic)/poly (iactic acid) homo and copolymers: 2. In vitro degradation. Polymer 22(4):494–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kalb BAJP, Pennings AJ (1980) General crystallization behaviour of poly (l-lactic acid). Polymer 21(6):607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marega C, Marigo A, Di Noto V, Zannetti R, Martorana A, Paganetto G (1992) Structure and crystallization kinetics of poly (l-lactic acid). Die Makromol Chem 193(7):1599–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ploypetchara N, Suppakul P, Atong D, Pechyen C (2014) Blend of polypropylene/poly (lactic acid) for medical packaging application: physicochemical, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties. Energy Procedia 56:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ebadi-Dehaghani H, Khonakdar HA, Barikani M, Jafari SH (2015) Experimental and theoretical analyses of mechanical properties of PP/PLA/clay nanocomposites. Compos B Eng 69:133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raghavan D, Emekalam A (2001) Characterization of starch/polyethylene and starch/polyethylene/poly (lactic acid) composites. Polym Degrad Stab 72(3):509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gajria AM, Dave V, Gross RA, McCarthy SP (1996) Miscibility and biodegradability of blends of poly (lactic acid) and poly (vinyl acetate). Polymer 37(3):437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yoon JS, Oh SH, Kim MN, Chin IJ, Kim YH (1999) Thermal and mechanical properties of poly (l-lactic acid)–poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) blends. Polymer 40(9):2303–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kenawy ER, Bowlin GL, Mansfield K, Layman J, Simpson DG, Sanders EH, Wnek GE (2002) Release of tetracycline hydrochloride from electrospun poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate), poly (lactic acid), and a blend. J Control Release 81(1–2):57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hasegawa N, Kawasumi M, Kato M, Usuki A, Okada A (1998) Preparation and mechanical properties of polypropylene-clay hybrids using a maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene oligomer. J Appl Polym Sci 67(1):87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ramazani A, Tavakolzadeh F, Baniasadi H (2009) In situ polymerization of polyethylene/clay nanocomposites using a novel clay-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Polym Compos 30(10):1388–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arunvisut S, Phummanee S, Somwangthanaroj A (2007) Effect of clay on mechanical and gas barrier properties of blown film LDPE/clay nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 106(4):2210–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacquelot E, Espuche E, Gérard JF, Duchet J, Mazabraud P (2006) Morphology and gas barrier properties of polyethylene-based nanocomposites. J Polym Sci Part B 44(2):431–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zanetti M, Camino G, Thomann R, Mülhaupt R (2001) Synthesis and thermal behaviour of layered silicate–EVA nanocomposites. Polymer 42(10):4501–4507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shafiee M, Ramazani SA, Danaei M (2010) Investigation of the gas barrier properties of pp/clay nanocomposite films with EVA as a compatibiliser prepared by the melt intercalation method. Polym Plast Technol Eng 49(10):991–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peeterbroeck S, Alexandre M, Jérôme R, Dubois P (2005) Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/clay nanocomposites: effect of clay nature and organic modifiers on morphology, mechanical and thermal properties. Polym Degrad Stab 90(2):288–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dadfar SR, Ramazani SA, Dadfar SA (2009) Investigation of oxygen barrier properties of organoclay/HDPE/EVA nanocomposite films prepared using a two-step solution method. Polym Compos 30(6):812–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sa AR, Shafiee M, Abedsoltan H, Shafiee A (2013) Gas barrier and mechanical properties of crosslinked ethylene vinyl acetate nanocomposites. J Compos Mater 47(23):2987–2993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nielsen LE (1967) Models for the permeability of filled polymer systems. J Macromol Sci Chem 1(5):929–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang C, Nuxoll EE, Cussler EL (2001) Reactive barrier films. AIChE J 47(2):295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lape NK, Nuxoll EE, Cussler EL (2004) Polydisperse flakes in barrier films. J Membr Sci 236(1–2):29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lewis TB, Nielsen LE (1970) Dynamic mechanical properties of particulate-filled composites. J Appl Polym Sci 14(6):1449–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Landel RF, Nielsen LE (1993) Mechanical properties of polymers and composites. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davies WEA (1971) The theory of elastic composite materials. J Phys D Appl Phys 4(9):1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brune DA, Bicerano J (2002) Micromechanics of nanocomposites: comparison of tensile and compressive elastic moduli, and prediction of effects of incomplete exfoliation and imperfect alignment on modulus. Polymer 43(2):369–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bharadwaj RK (2001) Modeling the barrier properties of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. Macromolecules 34(26):9189–9192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Song Z, Xiao H, Zhao Y (2014) Hydrophobic-modified nano-cellulose fiber/PLA biodegradable composites for lowering water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of paper. Carbohydr Polym 111:442–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu D, Wu L, Zhang M, Zhao Y (2008) Viscoelasticity and thermal stability of polylactide composites with various functionalized carbon nanotubes. Polym Degrad Stab 93(8):1577–1584CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations