Advertisement

An Environment-Friendly Palm Fatty Acid-Based Polymeric Surfactants for Coating Applications: Physicochemical, Surface Tension and Low-Foaming Properties

  • Siang Yin LeeEmail author
  • Yvonne Tze Qzian Ling
  • Yi Xin Heng
Original paper
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, two environmental-friendly low-foaming surfactants, anionic oleic acid surfactant (AOAS), and non-ionic oleic acid surfactant (NOAS) were synthesized by copolymerization of palm fatty acids with fully bio-sourced and renewable starting materials using polyesterification method. The chemical structures of both surfactants were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) studies. Acid value determination showed that NOAS achieved a higher conversion rate of 97% than that of AOAS with only 78%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment demonstrated that both surfactants had low Tg, around − 94 °C to − 68 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) exhibited polymer decomposition occurred above 150 °C. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement revealed that both surfactants were polydisperse, with NOAS had higher molecular weight than AOAS. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of AOAS and NOAS were recorded as 0.0670 mM/L and 0.0999 mM/L respectively. The surface tensions of both AOAS and NOAS were 33.27 mN/m and 41.13 mN/m, respectively. The contact angle measurement indicated that NOAS had a better wettability than AOAS. Cloud point of NOAS surfactant was determined to be 89 °C. These surfactants had better solubility in a non-polar solvent like hexane compared to polar solvents like ethanol and water. The foaming test concluded that both surfactants presented low foaming behavior, with immediate foam height less than 1.5 mm. The physicochemical and surface tension properties confirmed the surface active properties of both AOAS and NOAS. The foaming test results recommended consideration of both AOAS and NOAS for low-foaming applications, particularly to reduce foam formation in coatings.

Keywords

Biocompatible Low-foaming Palm fatty acid ester Physicochemical properties Surfactant 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support of Malaysian Rubber Board (Grant Number: DIV 2016/FCB/2016(12)/636) is gratefully acknowledged.

Funding

Funding was provided by Malaysian Rubber Board (Grant No. S17STL0663).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and Animal Rights

The authors would like to clarify that this manuscript does not contain any experiment using animals or human studies.

References

  1. 1.
    Raffa P, Wever DAZW, Picchioni F, Broekhuis AA (2015) Chem Rev 115:8504–8563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kelsch A, Tomcin S, Rausch K, Barz M, Mailander V, Schmidt M, Landfester K, Zentel R (2012) Biomacromolecules 13:4179–4187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qiang T, Bu Q, Huang Z, Wang X (2014) J Surfactants Deterg 17:959–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu S, Armes SP (2001) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 6:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson AD, Nicholson J, Prosser H (1991) Waterborne coatings. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rawlins JW, Storey RF (2013) The waterborne: Environmentally friendly coating technologies. In: Proceedings of the 40th annual international waterborne, high-solids, and powder coatings symposium. Destech Publications Inc, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kronberg B, Holmberg K, Lindman B (2014) Surface chemistry of surfactants and polymers. Wiley, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Provder T, Winnik MA, Urban MW (1996) Film formation in waterborne coatings, American Chemical Society. American Chemical Society, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Collins MJ, Martin RA, Stockl RR (2000) EP1003819B1Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Graf IV, Krasovskiy AL (2013) US20130280434A1Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mittal KL, Kumar P (2000) Emulsions, foams, and thin films. CRC Press, FloridaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abbott SJ (2017) Surfactant science: principles & practice. Destech Publications Inc, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holmberg K, Jönsson B, Kronberg B, Lindman B (2002) Surfactants and polymers in aqueous solution. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kirti S (2016) IRJET 3:173–183Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hofer R, Jost F, Schwuger MJ, Scharf R, Geke J, Kresse J, Lingmann H, Veitenhansl R, Erwied W (2012) Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Wiley, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garrett PR (2017) Defoaming: theory and industrial applications. CRC Press, FloridaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garret PR (1992) Theory and industrial applications. CRC Press, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kuo AL (1991) EP0459512A2Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Davio D, Hilberer A, L’hostis J, Lecomte JPH, Stammer HA, Ziolkowski N (2008) WO2008043512A2Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kulkarni RD, Goddard ED, Aronson MP (1985) US4514319AGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Householder K (1974) US3856701AGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoffarth G (1998) US5705476AGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Baum BM (1996) US5589099AGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schmolka IR, Earing MH (1966) US3314891AGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Welch MC, Otten JG, Schenk GR (1994) US5294365AGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Murphy DS (1996) U.S. Patent No. 5504054AGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crutcher T, Janota TE (1999) US 5972875AGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carandang CM, Dychdala GR (1976) US3969258AGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hamden MS, Madison RMM (1989) US4827028Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hirata Y, Ryu M, Oda Y, Igarashi K, Nagatsuka A, Furuta T, Sugiura M (2009) J Biosci Bioeng 108:142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mata J, Bahadur P (2005) Thermochim Acta 428:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vieira MGA, Silva MAD, Santos LOD, Beppu MM (2011) Eur Polym J 47:254–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jadhav NR, Gaikwad VL, Nair KJ, Kadam HM (2009) Asian J Pharm 3:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kalpakjian S, Schmid SR (2008) Manufacturing processes for engineering materials. Pearson Education, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Paul S (1995) Handbook of surface coatings: science and technology. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ngem NA, Mohamed AS (2004) J Surfactants Deterg 7:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hreczuch W, Dabrowska K, Chrusceiel A, Szbnajdrowska A, Materna K (2016) J Surfactants Deterg 19:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wilkes C, Summers J, Daniels C (2005) Handbook of PVC: plasticizers. Hanser, MunichGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gilbert M (2017) Handbook of Brydson’s plastics materials: relation of structure to thermal and mechanical properties, 8th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Attwood D, Florence AT (2012) Handbook of FASTrack physical pharmacy: surfactants. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Demissie H, Duraisamy R (2016) J Sci Innov Res 5:208–214Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gadhave A (2014) IJSR 3:573–575Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    El-Ghaffar ABD, Sherif MH, Taher El-Habab A (2017) J Surfactants Deterg 20:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    El-Sukkary MMA, Syed NA, Aiad I, El-Azab WIM (2008) J Surfactants Deterg 11:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    You Y, Wu X, Zhao J, Ye Y, Zou W (2011) Colloids Surf A 384:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lukeheimer K, Malysa K (2003) J Surfactants Deterg 6:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mousli R, Tazerouti A (2007) J Surfactants Deterg 10:279–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Latex Science and Technology Unit (USTL), Technology and Engineering Division (BTK), RRIM Sungai Buloh Research StationMalaysian Rubber Board (MRB)Sungai BulohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations