Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 11, pp 2624–2636 | Cite as

Metal Adsorbance in Abattoir Wastewater Using Cross-Linked Chitosan Derivatives

  • Ernestine AtanganaEmail author
  • Trevor T. Chiweshe
Original paper


Isolation of different elements from effluent water obtained from the red meat and the poultry industry was done using a series of modified chitosan cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrine, maleic anhydride, p-benzoquinone, poly-(ethylene) glycoldiglycidyl ether (PEG diglycidyl ether), 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 1,3-dichloroaceone, acrylic acid and s-methylbutylamine. Some parameters of the "22" chitosan derivatives crosslinked products each of red meat and poultry wastewater samples were analyzed like electrical conductance, pH, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. All these parameters values were within the permissible values of effluent discharge in the literature study. Different cross-linked chitosan products were tested for their ability to adsorb different elements from the red meat and poultry effluent wastewaters. ICP-OES analysis revealed the presence of up to "18" elements in both samples (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr and Zn). Both results also showed the presence of alkali and alkaline earth group metals (Ca, Mg, Na and K) as major elements (> 100 mg/L). The performance of each cross linked chitosan product was assessed based on the amount (concentration) and the quantity of elements adsorbed. Amongst the "22" of cross-linked chitosan products tested in this study, shrimp chitosan cross-linked with maleic anhydride (J1), shrimp chitosan cross-linked with acrylic acid (I2) chitosan products were shown to be better adsorbants for Cr and Ni due to the possible influence of the amino, carboxylic, hydroxyl, etc. functional groups in these chitosan products. Results also showed the presence of smaller concentrations (0.05–0.2 mg/L) of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb) in the eluted solution which suggests the versatility of the adsorbent to different elements.


Red meat and poultry wastewaters Chitosan cross-linked derivatives Chromatographic technique Qualitative and quantitative analysis ICP-OES technique 



The authors would like to thank the National Research Foundation in South Africa for the financial assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Confilct of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Centre of Environmental ManagementUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Institution for Groundwater StudiesUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

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