Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 11, pp 2352–2359 | Cite as

Waste Eggshells for the Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanosheets with Hydroxyapatite for Preparation of LLDPE Nanocomposites

  • Bhushan C. Chaudhari
  • Jitendra Khanderay
  • Chandrashekhar Patil
  • Amardip M. Patil
  • Sachin A. Joshi
  • Vijay Singh
  • Krushna Kaduba Palodkar
  • Annadanam V. Sesha Sainath
  • Vikas V. GiteEmail author
  • Harishchandra D. JirimaliEmail author
Original paper


Waste eggshells were used to decorate functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene oxide (GO) by hydroxyapatite (HAP) using in situ synthesis. The HAP decorated CNT and GO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and IR spectroscopic techniques. CNT-HAP and GO-HAP were further used to prepare polymer nanocomposites by addition of different percentages of synthesized CNT-HAP and GO-HAP as fillers into linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). The prepared nanocomposites specimens were utilized for physical and thermo-mechanical analysis. Mechanical properties of the LLDPE nanocomposites were improved with increasing the percentage of CNT-HAP and GO-HAP fillers compared to the pristine LLDPE. Hardness of hybrid-CNT-HAP/LLDPE composite was increased as compared to the GO-HAP/LLDPE, where as tensile strength of the GO-HAP/LLDPE was higher than that of the CNT-HAP/LLDPE composite. Flammability of CNT-HAP and GO-HAP composites was decreased by 32% as compared to the pristine LLDPE.

Graphic Abstract


Hydroxyapatite Carbon nanotube Graphene oxide LLDPE Polymer nanocomposite Waste eggshells 



This work is supported by the SERB New Delhi Govt. of India startup research grant awarded to Dr. H. D. Jirimali File No. SB/FT/CS–037/2014.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhushan C. Chaudhari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jitendra Khanderay
    • 1
  • Chandrashekhar Patil
    • 1
  • Amardip M. Patil
    • 1
  • Sachin A. Joshi
    • 3
  • Vijay Singh
    • 4
  • Krushna Kaduba Palodkar
    • 5
  • Annadanam V. Sesha Sainath
    • 5
  • Vikas V. Gite
    • 1
    Email author
  • Harishchandra D. Jirimali
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemical SciencesKavayitri Bahinabai Chaudhari North Maharashtra UniversityJalgaonIndia
  2. 2.University Institute of Chemical TechnologyKavayitri Bahinabai Chaudhari North Maharashtra University Jalgaon (MS)JalgaonIndia
  3. 3.Dr. K. C. Patel R & D Centre, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT)AnandIndia
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Polymers and Functional Materials, Fluoro and Agrochemicals Department, Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR)CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia
  6. 6.Department of ChemistryUka Tarsadia UniversitySuratIndia

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