Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Halloysite–Alginate Beads for the Removal of Lead(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions

  • Görkem Polat
  • Yeşim Sağ AçıkelEmail author
Original paper


In this study, alginate (ALG) hybrid spheres supported with magnetic halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs) were synthesized and used effectively in the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. MHNTs were prepared using the “co-precipitation” method. Afterward, magnetic halloysite–alginate (MHNT–ALG) hybrid beads were formed using ALG and MHNTs by the “extrusion dripping” method. The characterization of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), ALG, MHNTs, and MHNT–ALG hydrogels was performed using FTIR, TGA, particle size analysis, SEM–EDX, TEM, VSM, and BET. According to VSM measurements, the saturation magnetization values of MHNTs and MHNT–ALG hybrid beads at a mass ratio of 1:2 were determined to be 22.7 emu/g and 8.17 emu/g, respectively. The BET surface area of MHNT–ALG hybrid beads was measured to be 81.3 m2/g. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions on MHNT–ALG hydrogels was investigated as a function of the pH of the medium, amount of MHNT–ALG, the mass ratio of MHNT to ALG in the composite, and initial Pb(II) concentration in batch stirred vessels. The fit of the adsorption equilibrium of Pb(II) ions on MHNT–ALG hydrogels to the Langmuir type-I and type-II models, Freundlich model, and Redlich–Peterson model was investigated. The fit of the adsorption kinetics to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model was evaluated. Using the Weber and Morris model, the effect of internal and external diffusion limitations was discussed.


Wastewater Adsorption Lead(II) Magnetic halloysite–alginate beads Characterization 



The authors would like to thank TUBITAK, the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, for the 2210-C program. The authors also would like to thank the Middle East Technical University Central Laboratory for SEM–EDX, TEM, BET, VSM and particle size analysis.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioengineering Division, Institute of ScienceHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Bioengineering Division, Institute of ScienceHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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