Novel Environmentally Friendly Superabsorbent Hydrogel Hybrids from Synthesized Star-Shaped Bio-based Monomers and Acrylic Acid

  • Alaleh Dabbaghi
  • Arash Jahandideh
  • Kourosh KabiriEmail author
  • Ali RamazaniEmail author
  • Mohammad J. Zohuriaan-mehr
Original paper


During the past decades, production and applications of petroleum-based superabsorbents have grown dramatically; currently, superabsorbents are produced from acrylic acid, which consequently increase the environmental concerns. The high consumption rate of superabsorbent on the one hand, and their persistence in the environment from the other hand would make the waste of this material a potential hazard for the environment. These materials are not biodegradable, and if degraded hazardous derivatives would be released into soil and water. The current work presents the synthesis and the performance of a novel superabsorbent hydrogel, based on star-shaped bio-based compartments and acrylic acid. Herein, the synthesis of two bio-based star-shaped monomers will be reported based on the condensation reaction between hydroxyl and carboxylic acid end groups of a bio-acid and a bio-alcohol. The first monomer was synthesized from glycerin, succinic acid, lactic acid, itaconic acid, and acrylic acid. The second monomer was synthesized from glycerin, lactic acid, and methacrylic acid. The monomers structures were characterized via FT-IR and 1HNMR spectroscopies. The different portions of biobased monomers (10, 30, 50, and 70 wt%) were used in combination with the acrylic acid monomer to form hybrid superabsorbents. The swelling properties and the absorbency under load (AUL) of superabsorbents were investigated in turn. The maximum absorption capacities (398.49 and 90.10 g g−1 in water and saline solution, respectively) were observed when 30 wt% of acrylic acid backbone of the superabsorbent was replaced with the bio-based monomer. Moreover, economic and environmental profiles of the hybrid SAPs have been evaluated. The comparative environmental assessment performed using life cycle analysis method, based on the material and energy balances obtained from the available literature. While the economy of the hybrid SAPs production still suffers from the high price of the employed raw biomaterials during manufacturing, the better environmental profiles obtained for the hybrid SAPs.


Superabsorbent Star-shaped Bio-based Hybrid Environmental profile Eco-friendly 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran
  2. 2.Adhesive and Resin DepartmentIran Polymer and Petrochemical InstituteTehranIran
  3. 3.Biomass Conversion Science and Technology (BCST) DivisionIran Polymer and Petrochemical InstituteTehranIran
  4. 4.Research Institute of Modern Biological Techniques (RIMBT)University of ZanjanZanjanIran

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