Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 1801–1806 | Cite as

A Novel Highly Porous Cellulosic Aerogel Regenerated by Solvent Exchange Mechanism

  • Mehmet KayaEmail author
  • Adem Demir
  • Hakkı Türker Akçay
Original paper


Cellulose acetate aerogel (CAA) regenerated with toluene solvent was first obtained and analysed in this work using several measurement techniques. CAA, a “green” and environmentally friendly material, with high thermal stability, water absorbency and a porous structure is a hopeful candidate as a superabsorbent and potential heat insulator for various applications. The obtained porous aerogel with a notable surface area (312.5 m2/g) is thermally stable up to about 300 °C and super-absorbent (72.0 g water/1.0 g sample). Thereby, the present study can play an important role in developing production of cellulose acetate based “green” absorbent and potential aerogel materials for heat insulating. Moreover, this process is handily available at low cost, sustainable and favourable for many applications.


Aerogel Cellulose acetate Solvent-exchange Freeze-drying Super-absorbent 



The authors thank the Research Fund of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Department of Chemistry for the financial support of this work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. 1.
    Mahmoud KH (2016) Optical properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose film treated with nitrogen plasma. Spectrochim Acta A 157:153–157Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee SH, Lee HL, Youn HJ (2014) Adsorption and viscoelastic properties of cationic xylan on cellulose film using QCM-D. Cellulose 21(3):1251–1260Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhai TL, Zheng QF, Cai ZY, Xia HS, Gong SQ (2016) Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanofibril hybrid aerogel microspheres and their use as oil/solvent superabsorbents. Carbohydr Polym 148:300–308Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yang J, Zhang EW, Li XF, Zhang YT, Qu J, Yu ZZ (2016) Cellulose/graphene aerogel supported phase change composites with high thermal conductivity and good shape stability for thermal energy storage. Carbon 98:50–57Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moriana R, Vilaplana F, Ek M (2016) Cellulose nanocrystals from forest residues as reinforcing agents for composites: a study from macro- to nano-dimensions. Carbohydr Polym 139:139–149Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agustin MB, Ahmmad B, Alonzo SMM, Patriana FM (2014) Bioplastic based on starch and cellulose nanocrystals from rice straw. J Reinf Plast Compos 33(24):2205–2213Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tanaka S, Iji M (2012) Novel cellulose-based bioplastic with high durability: cellulose diacetate bonded with cardanol from cashew nutshells and aromatic components. Abstr Pap Am Chem Soc 243:1155Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Milovanovic S, Markovic D, Aksentijevic K, Stojanovic DB, Ivanovic J, Zizovic I (2016) Application of cellulose acetate for controlled release of thymol. Carbohydr Polym 147:344–353. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Israel AU, Obot IB, Umoren SA, Mkpenie V, Asuquo JE (2008) Production of cellulosic polymers from agricultural wastes. E-J Chem 5(1):81–85Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang GZ, Huang K, Jiang X, Huang D, Yang YQ (2013) Acetylation of rice straw for thermoplastic applications. Carbohydr Polym 96(1):218–226Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ribeiro K, de Andrade TM, Fujiwara ST (2016) Preparation and application of cellulose acetate/Fe films in the degradation of reactive black 5 dye through photo-fenton reaction. Environ Technol 37(13):1664–1675Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liakos IL, Abdellatif MH, Innocenti C, Scarpellini A, Carzino R, Brunetti V, Marras S, Brescia R, Drago F, Pompa PP (2016) Antimicrobial lemongrass essential oil-copper ferrite cellulose acetate nanocapsules. Molecules 21(4):520Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Appaw C, Gilbert RD, Khan SA (2007) Viscoelastic behavior of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent system. Biomacromolecules 8(5):1541–1547Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Son WK, Youk JH, Lee TS, Park WH (2004) Electrospinning of ultrafine cellulose acetate fibers: studies of a new solvent system and deacetylation of ultrafine cellulose acetate fibers. J Polym Sci B 42(1):5–11Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siqueira G, Mathew AP, Oksman K (2011) Processing of cellulose nanowhiskers/cellulose acetate butyrate nanocomposites using sol-gel process to facilitate dispersion. Compos Sci Technol 71(16):1886–1892Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fischer F, Rigacci A, Pirard R, Berthon-Fabry S, Achard P (2006) Cellulose-based aerogels. Polymer 47(22):7636–7645Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pierre AC, Pajonk GM (2002) Chemistry of aerogels and their applications. Chem Rev 102(11):4243–4265Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaya M (2016) Synthesis and characterization of cellulose based bio-polymer aerogel isolated from waste of blueberry tree (Vaccinium myrtillus). J Turk Chem Soc A 3(3):765–776Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaya M (2017) Super absorbent, light, and highly flame retardant cellulose-based aerogel crosslinked with citric acid. J Appl Polym Sci 134:45315–45323Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baetens R, Jelle BP, Gustavsen A (2011) Aerogel insulation for building applications: a state-of-the-art review. Energy Build 43(4):761–769Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jones SM (2006) Aerogel: space exploration applications. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 40(2–3):351–357Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu NP, Shen J, Liu D (2013) Activated high specific surface area carbon aerogels for EDLCs. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 167:176–181Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shin EJ, Choi SM, Singh D, Zo SM, Lee YH, Kim JH, Han SS (2014) Fabrication of cellulose-based scaffold with microarchitecture using a leaching technique for biomedical applications. Cellulose 21(5):3515–3525. Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cai J, Kimura S, Wada M, Kuga S, Zhang L (2008) Cellulose aerogels from aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution. Chemsuschem 1(1–2):149–154Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen WS, Yu HP, Li Q, Liu YX, Li J (2011) Ultralight and highly flexible aerogels with long cellulose I nanofibers. Soft Matter 7(21):10360–10368Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heath L, Thielemans W (2010) Cellulose nanowhisker aerogels. Green Chem 12(8):1448–1453. Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Han YY, Zhang XX, Wu XD, Lu CH (2015) Flame retardant, heat insulating cellulose aerogels from waste cotton fabrics by in situ formation of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in cellulose gel nanostructures. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3(8):1853–1859Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kamal H, Abd-Elrahim FM, Lotfy S (2014) Characterization and some properties of cellulose acetate-co-polyethylene oxide blends prepared by the use of gamma irradiation. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7(2):146–153. Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Song JL, Birbach NL, Hinestroza JP (2012) Deposition of silver nanoparticles on cellulosic fibers via stabilization of carboxymethyl groups. Cellulose 19(2):411–424Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zavastin D, Cretescu I, Bezdadea M, Bourceanu M, Drăgan M, Lisa G, Mangalagiu I, Vasić V, Savić J (2010) Preparation, characterization and applicability of cellulose acetate–polyurethane blend membrane in separation techniques. Colloids Surf A 370(1):120–128. Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    John A, Chen Y, Kim J (2012) Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate–calcium carbonate hybrid nanocomposite. Composites B 43(2):522–525. Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Proniewicz LM, Paluszkiewicz C, Wesełucha-Birczyńska A, Majcherczyk H, Barański A, Konieczna A (2001) FT-IR and FT-Raman study of hydrothermally degradated cellulose. J Mol Struct 596(1):163–169. Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kim D-Y, Nishiyama Y, Kuga S (2002) Surface acetylation of bacterial cellulose. Cellulose 9(3):361–367. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anitha S, Brabu B, Thiruvadigal DJ, Gopalakrishnan C, Natarajan TS (2012) Optical, bactericidal and water repellent properties of electrospun nano-composite membranes of cellulose acetate and ZnO. Carbohydr Polym 87(2):1065–1072. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rouquerol J, Avnir D, Fairbridge CW, Everett DH, Haynes JH, Pernicone N, Ramsay JDF, Sing KSW, Unger KK (1994) Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids. Pure Appl Chem 66(8):1739–1758Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Branton PJ, Hall PG, Sing KSW, Reichert H, Schuth F, Unger KK (1994) Physisorption of argon, nitrogen and oxygen by Mcm-41, a model mesoporous adsorbent. J Chem Soc Faraday T 90(19):2965–2967Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brunauer S, Emmett PH, Teller E (1938) Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J Am Chem Soc 60(2):309–319. Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sehaqui H, Zhou Q, Berglund LA (2011) High-porosity aerogels of high specific surface area prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Compos Sci Technol 71(13):1593–1599. Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lucena MDC, de Alencar AEV, Mazzeto SE, Soares SD (2003) The effect of additives on the thermal degradation of cellulose acetate. Polym Degrad Stabil 80(1):149–155Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jiang F, Hsieh YL (2017) Cellulose nanofibril aerogels: synergistic improvement of hydrophobicity, strength, and thermal stability via cross-linking with diisocyanate. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9(3):2825–2834Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sehaqui H, Salajkova M, Zhou Q, Berglund LA (2010) Mechanical performance tailoring of tough ultra-high porosity foams prepared from cellulose I nanofiber suspensions. Soft Matter 6(8):1824–1832Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang W, Zhang Y, Lu CH, Deng YL (2012) Aerogels from crosslinked cellulose nano/micro-fibrils and their fast shape recovery property in water. J Mater Chem 22(23):11642–11650Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nguyen ST, Feng JD, Ng SK, Wong JPW, Tan VBC, Duong HM (2014) Advanced thermal insulation and absorption properties of recycled cellulose aerogels. Colloid Surf A 445:128–134Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of ChemistryRecep Tayyip Erdogan UniversityRizeTurkey
  2. 2.Central Research LaboratoryRecep Tayyip Erdogan UniversityRizeTurkey

Personalised recommendations