Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 1770–1780 | Cite as

Adsorption of Nickel Ion in Aqueous Using Rubber-Based Hydrogel

  • Fazira Firdaus
  • Mohamad Shahrul Fizree Idris
  • Siti Fairus M. YusoffEmail author
Original paper


This work reports about a rubber-based hydrogel from liquid natural rubber (LNR) and acrylic acid (AAc) by using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent. The structure, stability, and morphology of the hydrogel were confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscope. The optimisation of the swelling capacity and Ni2+ removal percentage by the rubber-based hydrogel was conducted by using 5-level-2-factor response surface methodology. The effect of AAc:LNR ratio (0.59–3.41 g/g) and MBA concentration (0.02–0.23 M) parameters was studied with constant KPS concentration (0.05 M) used. Quadratic models for both responses (swelling and Ni2+ removal percentage) were successfully developed by using statistical analysis. The swelling degree and Ni2+ removal percentage of hydrogel were improved when high AAc:LNR ratio and lower MBA concentration were used. The R2 values for these quadratic models were 0.9891 and 0.9939 (swelling and Ni2+ removal percentage), respectively, which showed that the models were well-fitted with the experimental data. From the analysis, the optimum conditions for maximum swelling capacity (1181.90%) and Ni2+ removal percentage (26.74%) were hydrogel with AAc:LNR ratio 3.00 g/g and 0.05 M of MBA.


Rubber Acrylic acid Hydrogel Response surface methodology Adsorption 



The authors would like to acknowledge Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) for the research Grants (FRGS/1/2016/STG01/UKM/02/4 and GUP-2017-004) and Centre for Research and Instrumentation (CRIM) at UKM for their facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fazira Firdaus
    • 1
  • Mohamad Shahrul Fizree Idris
    • 1
  • Siti Fairus M. Yusoff
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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