Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 1686–1692 | Cite as

Bioactivity Potentials of Biodegradable Chitosan/Gelatin Film Forming Solutions Combined with Monoterpenoid Compounds

  • Tuba BaygarEmail author
Original paper


Novel food packaging systems including biodegradable/edible films have been introduced to the market for consumers who desire natural products for their nutrition. Biochemically active plant compounds are added to the biopolymer-based films to improve their functionality. Within the present study, chitosan (1%) and gelatin (4%) biopolymer-based film forming solutions (FFSs) combined with 1, 2, 5 and 10% (v/v) eugenol, pulegone and carvacrol, monoterpenoid compounds, were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidative potential. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) of the FFSs were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and Folin–Ciocalteau assays, respectively. Screening the antimicrobial activity of FFSs were performed against food spoilage microorganisms including Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes and a fungi, Candida albicans by using agar well diffusion method. The chitosan FFS containing 10% carvacrol had greater TPC (3857.3 ± 0.07 mg gallic acid equivalent/L). The highest antioxidative capacity was observed for the chitosan FFS containing 10% eugenol as 97.92 ± 0.01%. FFSs with monoterpenoids showed promising antimicrobial activities against tested microorganisms. Based on antioxidative and antimicrobial potentials of the FFSs, it can be envisaged to use monoterpenoid incorporation to biopolymer films for food packaging applications.


Biodegradable Film forming solution Monoterpenoid Antimicrobial Antioxidant 



Author would like to thank to Prof. Dr. Aysel UGUR, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nurdan SARAC and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yunus Alparslan for supporting the analyses.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Tharanathan RN (2003) Biodegradable films and composite coatings: past, present and future. Trends Food Sci Technol 14(3):71–78Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khwaldia K, Arab-Tehrany E, Desobry S (2010) Biopolymer coatings on paper packaging materials. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 9(1):82–91Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gómez-Guillén MC, Pérez-Mateos M, Gómez-Estaca J, López-Caballero E, Giménez B, Montero P (2009) Fish gelatin: a renewable material for developing active biodegradable films. Trends Food Sci Technol 20(1):3–16Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caner C, Vergano PJ, Wiles JL (1998) Chitosan film mechanical and permeation properties as affected by acid, plasticizer, and storage. J Food Sci 63(6):1049–1053Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ojagh SM, Rezaei M, Razavi SH, Hosseini SMH (2010) Development and evaluation of a novel biodegradable film made from chitosan and cinnamon essential oil with low affinity toward water. Food Chem 122(1):161–166Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gyawali R, Ibrahim SA (2014) Natural products as antimicrobial agents. Food Control 46:412–429Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cha DS, Choi JH, Chinnan MS, Park HJ (2002) Antimicrobial films based on Na-alginate and κ-carrageenan. LWT Food Sci Technol 35(8):715–719Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oussalah M, Caillet S, Salmiéri S, Saucier L, Lacroix M (2004) Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of milk protein-based film containing essential oils for the preservation of whole beef muscle. J Agric Food Chem 52(18):5598–5605Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zivanovic S, Chi S, Draughon AF (2005) Antimicrobial activity of chitosan films enriched with essential oils. J Food Sci 70(1):M45–M51Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rao V (2012) Phytochemicals: a global perspective of their role in nutrition and health. InTech, Rijeka, pp 327–352Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Erickson RE (1976) Industrial importance of monoterpenes and essential oils. Lloydia 39:8–19Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leung AY (1980) Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Božović M, Ragno R (2017) Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi and its main essential oil constituent pulegone: biological activities and chemistry. Molecules 22(2):290–340Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stratakos AC, Sima F, Ward P, Linton M, Kelly C, Pinkerton L et al (2018) The in vitro effect of carvacrol, a food additive, on the pathogenicity of O157 and non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli. Food Control 84:290–296Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bonilla J, Poloni T, Lourenço RV, Sobral PJ (2018) Antioxidant potential of eugenol and ginger essential oils with gelatin/chitosan films. Food Biosci 23:107–114Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benbettaïeb N, Chambin O, Assifaoui A, Al-Assaf S, Karbowiak T, Debeaufort F (2016) Release of coumarin incorporated into chitosan-gelatin irradiated films. Food Hydrocoll 56:266–276Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Souza VGL, Fernando AL, Pires JRA, Rodrigues PF, Lopes AA, Fernandes FMB (2017) Physical properties of chitosan films incorporated with natural antioxidants. Ind Crops Prod 107:565–572Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alparslan Y (2018) Antimicrobial and antioxidant capacity of biodegradable gelatin film forming solutions incorporated with different essential oils. J Food Meas Charact 12(1):317–322Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Waterhouse A (1999) Folin-Ciocalteau micro method for total phenol in wine. Am J Enol Vitic 28:1–3Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset CLWT (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 28(1):25–30Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mensor LL, Menezes FS, Leitão GG, Reis AS, Santos TCD, Coube CS, Leitão SG (2001) Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytother Res 15(2):127–130Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (1993) Approval standard M7-A3, methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically’. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), VillanovaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Park PJ, Je JY, Kim SK (2004) Free radical scavenging activities of differently deacetylated chitosans using an ESR spectrometer. Carbohydr Polym 55(1):17–22Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yen MT, Yang JH, Mau JL (2008) Antioxidant properties of chitosan from crab shells. Carbohydr Polym 74(4):840–844Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen F, Shi Z, Neoh KG, Kang ET (2009) Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of eugenol and carvacrol-grafted chitosan nanoparticles. Biotechnol Bioeng 104(1):30–39Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang SH, Wu CH, Tsai GJ (2018) Effects of chitosan molecular weight on its antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Carbohydr Polym 181:1026–1032Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Siripatrawan U, Harte BR (2010) Physical properties and antioxidant activity of an active film from chitosan incorporated with green tea extract. Food Hydrocoll 24(8):770–775Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gülçin İ (2011) Antioxidant activity of eugenol: a structure–activity relationship study. J Med Food 14(9):975–985Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guimarães AG, Oliveira GF, Melo MS, Cavalcanti SC, Antoniolli AR, Bonjardim LR, Araújo AA (2010) Bioassay-guided evaluation of antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of carvacrol. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 107(6):949–957Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oliveira IS, da Silva FV, Viana AFS, dos Santos MR, Quintans-Júnior LJ, Maria do Carmo CM et al (2012) Gastroprotective activity of carvacrol on experimentally induced gastric lesions in rodents. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 385(9):899–908Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 74(17):2157–2184Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Katsube T, Tabata H, Ohta Y, Yamasaki Y, Anuurad E, Shiwaku K, Yamane Y (2004) Screening for antioxidant activity in edible plant products: comparison of low-density lipoprotein oxidation assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin-Ciocalteu assay. J Agric Food Chem 52(8):2391–2396Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Djeridan A, Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Boutassouna D, Stocker P, Vidal N (2006) Antioxidant activity of some Algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds. Food Chem 97(4):654–660Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Katalinic V, Milos M, Kulisic T, Jukic M (2006) Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chem 94(4):550–557Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wojdyło A, Oszmiański J, Czemerys R (2007) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem 105(3):940–949Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gómez-Estaca J, De Lacey AL, López-Caballero ME, Gómez-Guillén MC, Montero P (2010) Biodegradable gelatin–chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation. Food Microbiol 27(7):889–896Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tharanathan RN, Kittur FS (2003) Chitin—the undisputed biomolecule of great potential. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:61–87Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ruiz-Navajas Y, Viuda-Martos M, Sendra E, Perez-Alvarez JA, Fernández-López J (2013) In vitro antibacterial and antioxidant properties of chitosan edible films incorporated with Thymus moroderi or Thymus piperella essential oils. Food Control 30(2):386–392Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang L, Liu F, Jiang Y, Chai Z, Li P, Cheng Y, Jing H, Leng X (2011) Synergistic antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils with chitosan films. J Agric Food Chem 59(23):12411–12419Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Laboratories CenterMugla Sitki Kocman UniversityMuglaTurkey

Personalised recommendations