Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1071–1085 | Cite as

Physical, Chemical, Thermal and Microstructural Characterization of Edible Films from Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Proteins

  • Furkan Türker SarıcaoğluEmail author
  • Sadettin Turhan
Original paper


Mechanically deboned chicken meat protein concentrate (CMPC) was mixed with 30, 40 and 50% glycerol to produce films and physical, thermal, chemical, morphological and microstructural properties of films were characterized. The apparent porosity of films increased with increasing glycerol content which was due to the increase of free volume in film matrix (P < 0.05). The higher the apparent porosity, the greater the water vapor and oxygen permeability of films were (P < 0.05), which means gas molecules are permeating through pores. Puncture strength of films decreased as glycerol concentration increased, whereas puncture deformation was increased (P < 0.05). Lower glass transition temperature (Tg) observed as glycerol concentration increased, and Tg values of films were well fitted to Gordon-Taylor model as a function of glycerol mass fraction. Higher glycerol concentrations led to decrease of onset temperatures of weight losses, while weight loss increased. Infrared spectra of films showed similar backbone structure, but increasing glycerol concentration affected to peak intensity around 1000–1100 cm−1. All films had low percentage of degree of crystallinity. CMPC films showed lower contact angle than 65° and all films had hydrophilic surfaces. The surface morphology of films showed that films plasticized with 40% glycerol had the lowest roughness value (P < 0.05). Micrographs of films also showed porous surface structure as glycerol concentration increased, and these images supported the results of porosity, mechanical and barrier properties of films. It can be concluded from these results that glycerol at 40% concentration showed the best results when compared with the other two concentrations.


Mechanically deboned meat protein Edible films Barrier properties TGA AFM 



This study was derived from Ph.D. thesis of first author, and was supported by Ondokuz Mayis University Research Foundation (Grant No. PYO.MUH.1904.15.006). Some parts of this study was performed at Healthy Processed Foods Research unit at Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA (WRRC/ARS/USDA), while the first author was supported with a scholarship granted by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Grant No. 1059B141500356).


  1. 1.
    da Rocha M, Loiko MR, Gautério GV, Tondo EC, Prentice C (2013) Influence of heating, protein and glycerol concentrations of film-forming solution on the film properties of Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) protein isolate. J Food Eng 116(3):666–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arfat YA, Benjakul S, Prodpran T, Osako K (2014) Development and characterisation of blend films based on fish protein isolate and fish skin gelatin. Food Hydrocoll 39:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    da Rocha M, Loiko MR, Tondo EC, Prentice C (2014) Physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) protein films incorporated with organic acids. Food Hydrocoll 37:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gómez-Estaca J, Calvo MM, Sánchez-Faure A, Montero P, Gómez-Guillén MC (2015) Development, properties, and stability of antioxidant shrimp muscle protein films incorporating carotenoid-containing extracts from food by-products. LWT Food Sci Technol 64(1):189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Şahin A, Çarkcıoğlu E, Demirhan B, Candoğan K (2017) Chitosan edible coating and oxygen scavenger effects on modified atmosphere packaged sliced sucuk. J Food Process Preserv 41(6) e13213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aşik E, Candoğan K (2014) Effects of chitosan coatings incorporated with garlic oil on quality characteristics of shrimp. J Food Qual 37(4):237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emiroğlu ZK, Yemiş GP, Coşkun BK, Candoğan K (2010) Antimicrobial activity of soy edible films incorporated with thyme and oregano essential oils on fresh ground beef patties. Meat Sci 86(2):283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tural S, Turhan S (2017) Effect of anchovy by-product protein coating incorporated with thyme essential oil on the shelf life of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) fillets. Food Sci Biotechnol 26(5):1291–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sablani SS, Dasse F, Bastarrachea L, Dhawan S, Hendrix KM, Min SC (2009) Apple peel-based edible film development using a high-pressure homogenization. J Food Sci 74(7):E372–E381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pereira AGT, Ramos EM, Teixeira JT, Cardoso GP, Ramos AdLS, Fontes PR (2011) Effects of the addition of mechanically deboned poultry meat and collagen fibers on quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Meat Sci 89(4):519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Savadkoohi S, Shamsi K, Hoogenkamp H, Javadi A, Farahnaky A (2013) Mechanical and gelling properties of comminuted sausages containing chicken MDM. J Food Eng 117(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Song DH, Choi JH, Choi YS, Kim HW, Hwang KE, Kim YJ, Ham YK, Kim CJ (2014) Effects of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) and collagen on the quality characteristics of semi-dried chicken jerky. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 34(6):727–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jin SK, Hwang JW, Moon S, Choi YJ, Kim GD, Jung EY, Yang HS (2014) The effects of mechanically deboned chicken hydrolysates on the characteristics of imitation crab stick. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 34(2):192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saricaoglu FT, Turhan S (2017) Functional and film-forming properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat proteins. Int J Food Eng. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zavareze EdR, Halal SLME, Marques e Silva R, Dias ARG, Prentice-Hernández C (2014) Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of biodegradable films based on muscle and waste proteins from the whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri). J Food Process Preserv 38(4):1973–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    AOAC (2000) Kjeltec nitorgen analysis. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Moura MR, Avena-Bustillos RJ, McHugh TH, Wood DF, Otoni CG, Mattoso LHC (2011) Miniaturization of cellulose fibers and effect of addition on the mechanical and barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films. J Food Eng 104(1):154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASTM (2003) Standart test method for water vapor transmission of materials. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Avena-Bustillos RJ, Chiou B, Olsen CW, Bechtel PJ, Olson DA, McHugh TH, Gelation (2011) Oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films. J Food Sci 76(7):E519–E524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    ASTM (1995) Standard test method for oxygen gas transmission rate through plastic film and sheeting using a coulometric sensor. Annual book of American Standard Testing Methods USA. ASTM, West Conshohocken, pp 472–477Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chang C, Nickerson MT (2015) Effect of protein and glycerol concentration on the mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties of canola protein isolate-based edible films. Food Sci Technol Int 21(1):33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Janjarasskul T, Krochta JM (2010) Edible packaging materials. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 1(1):415–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Daudt RM, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Williams T, Wood DF, Külkamp-Guerreiro IC, Marczak LDF, McHugh TH (2016) Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour. Food Hydrocoll 60:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Otoni CG, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Olsen CW, Bilbao-Sáinz C, McHugh TH (2016) Mechanical and water barrier properties of isolated soy protein composite edible films as affected by carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde micro and nanoemulsions. Food Hydrocoll 57:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nuanmano S, Prodpran T, Benjakul S (2015) Potential use of gelatin hydrolysate as plasticizer in fish myofibrillar protein film. Food Hydrocoll 47:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nuthong P, Benjakul S, Prodpran T (2009) Effect of some factors and pretreatment on the properties of porcine plasma protein-based films. LWT Food Sci Technol 42(9):1545–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kowalczyk D, Gustaw W, Zięba E, Lisiecki S, Stadnik J, Baraniak B (2016) Microstructure and functional properties of sorbitol-plasticized pea protein isolate emulsion films: effect of lipid type and concentration. Food Hydrocoll 60:353–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nawab A, Alam F, Haq MA, Lutfi Z, Hasnain A (2017) Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: physical, mechanical and barrier properties. Int J Biol Macromol 98:869–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jouki M, Tabatabaei Yazdi F, Mortazavi SA, Koocheki A (2013) Physical, barrier and antioxidant properties of a novel plasticized edible film from quince seed mucilage. Int J Biol Macromol 62:500–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Donhowe G, Fennema O (1993) Water vapor and oxygen permeability of wax films. J Am Oil Chem Soc 70(9):867–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Park HJ, Testin RF, Vergano PJ, Weller CL (1992) Factors affecting barrier and mechanical properties of protein-based edible, degradable films. Proceedings 53rd annual meeting of Instution of Food Technologists, New Orleans, 20–24 June 1992Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gontard N, Guilbert S, Cuq J-L (1993) Water and glycerol as plasticizers affect mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of an edible wheat gluten film. J Food Sci 58(1):206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Choi W-S, Han JH (2001) Physical and mechanical properties of pea-protein-based edible films. J Food Sci 66(2):319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu C-C, Tellez-Garay AM, Castell-Perez ME (2004) Physical and mechanical properties of peanut protein films. LWT Food Sci Technol 37(7):731–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yang L, Paulson AT (2000) Mechanical and water vapour barrier properties of edible gellan films. Food Res Int 33(7):563–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ramos ÓL, Reinas I, Silva SI, Fernandes JC, Cerqueira MA, Pereira RN, Vicente AA, Poças MF, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2013) Effect of whey protein purity and glycerol content upon physical properties of edible films manufactured therefrom. Food Hydrocoll 30(1):110–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barreto PLM, Pires ATN, Soldi V (2003) Thermal degradation of edible films based on milk proteins and gelatin in inert atmosphere. Polym Degrad Stab 79(1):147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ghasemlou M, Khodaiyan F, Oromiehie A, Yarmand MS (2011) Characterization of edible emulsified films with low affinity to water based on kefiran and oleic acid. Int J Biol Macromol 49(3):378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Robertson GL (2012) Food packaging: principles and practice. CRC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jouki M, Mortazavi SA, Yazdi FT, Koocheki A (2014) Characterization of antioxidant–antibacterial quince seed mucilage films containing thyme essential oil. Carbohyd Polym 99(Supplement C):537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kurt A, Kahyaoglu T (2014) Characterization of a new biodegradable edible film made from salep glucomannan. Carbohyd Polym 104(0):50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Colak BY, Gouanve F, Degraeve P, Espuche E, Prochazka F (2015) Study of the influences of film processing conditions and glycerol amount on the water sorption and gas barrier properties of novel sodium caseinate films. J Membr Sci 478:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sobral PJDA, Dos Santos JS, García FT (2005) Effect of protein and plasticizer concentrations in film forming solutions on physical properties of edible films based on muscle proteins of a Thai Tilapia. J Food Eng 70(1):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nuthong P, Benjakul S, Prodpran T (2009) Characterization of porcine plasma protein-based films as affected by pretreatment and cross-linking agents. Int J Biol Macromol 44(2):143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guerrero P, de la Caba K (2010) Thermal and mechanical properties of soy protein films processed at different pH by compression. J Food Eng 100(2):261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Blanco-Pascual N, Fernández-Martín F, Montero P (2014) Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) myofibrillar protein concentrate for edible packaging films and storage stability. LWT Food Sci Technol 55(2):543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Aewsiri T, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W (2009) Functional properties of gelatin from cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin as affected by bleaching using hydrogen peroxide. Food Chem 115(1):243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bergo P, Sobral PJA (2007) Effects of plasticizer on physical properties of pigskin gelatin films. Food Hydrocoll 21(8):1285–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    William RCV, Daniela CB, Sandriane P, Carlos P (2015) Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite film from Whitemuth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) protein isolate modified with montmorillonite. Int Food Res J 22(3):1053–1058Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tanioka A, Miyasaka K, Ishikawa K (1976) Reconstitution of collagen-fold structure with stretching of gelatin film. Biopolymers 15(8):1505–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rivero S, García MA, Pinotti A (2010) Correlations between structural, barrier, thermal and mechanical properties of plasticized gelatin films. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 11(2):369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Athamneh AI, Griffin M, Whaley M, Barone JR (2008) Conformational changes and molecular mobility in plasticized proteins. Biomacromol 9(11):3181–3187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sharma L, Singh C (2016) Sesame protein based edible films: development and characterization. Food Hydrocoll 61:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Galus S, Kadzińska J (2016) Whey protein edible films modified with almond and walnut oils. Food Hydrocoll 52:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Khazaei N, Esmaiili M, Djomeh ZE, Ghasemlou M, Jouki M (2014) Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum. Carbohyd Polym 102:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Antoniou J, Liu F, Majeed H, Qazi HJ, Zhong F (2014) Physicochemical and thermomechanical characterization of tara gum edible films: effect of polyols as plasticizers. Carbohyd Polym 111:359–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vogler EA (1998) Structure and reactivity of water at biomaterial surfaces. Adv Coll Interface Sci 74(1–3):69–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Elofsson C, Dejmek P, Paulsson M, Burling H (1997) Atomic force microscopy studies on whey proteins. Int Dairy J 7(12):813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mauer LJ, Smith DE, Labuza TP (2000) Water vapor permeability, mechanical, and structural properties of edible β-casein films. Int Dairy J 10(5–6):353–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Farhan A, Hani NM (2017) Characterization of edible packaging films based on semi-refined kappa-carrageenan plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol. Food Hydrocoll 64:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gounga ME, Xu S-Y, Wang Z (2007) Whey protein isolate-based edible films as affected by protein concentration, glycerol ratio and pullulan addition in film formation. J Food Eng 83(4):521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural ScienceBursa Technical UniversityBursaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Engineering FacultyOndokuz Mayis UniversitySamsunTurkey

Personalised recommendations