Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 996–1006 | Cite as

Structural Modification of Starch Nanoparticles Via Graft Copolymerization Using KMnO4, HClO4 and HNO3 Redox Pair

  • Kh. M. MostafaEmail author
  • H. A. El-Meged
  • M. S. Morsy
  • A. El-ebasiy
  • A. A. Elsanabary
Original paper


The novelty addressed here is commenced with a view to use our formerly prepared starch nanoparticles (SNPs) of size around 80–100 nm as a starting substrate for grafting meth acrylic acid (MAA) using KMnO4, HClO4 in presence of HNO3 as innovative redox pair in aqueous medium. This was done to see the effect of SNPs with respect to well-dispersed nanosized particles, large surface areas, biodegradability and reactivity on the rate and extent of grafting. Besides; maximize the graft yield and graft reaction efficiency and reduce the homopolymer formation to lower extent. This could be accomplished via an in-depth assessment into the chief factors affecting the polymerization reaction such as initiator, monomer, SNPs and acid concentrations, time and temperature of polymerization, and liquor ratio. The results obtained indicate that the magnitude of the polymer yield including graft yield, graft reaction efficiency and homopolymer formation are determined by these factors. The structure of the resultant copolymers was confirmed instrumentally by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy; while both the surface morphology, crystalline structure and thermal properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis. Furthermore, the resultant copolymers were evaluated as environmental remediation materials via cadmium ions and cationic dyes removal from their solutions with different extent; in addition to higher swelling and chemical resistance in water as polar solvent and hydrochloric acid as acidic solution. The anticipated mechanisms involved in the synthesis are reported.


Starch nanoparticles Grafting Metal ions Cationic dyes Chemical resistance 



This work was funded by National Institute of standards, NIS.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Textile Metrology Laboratory, Chemical Metrology DivisionNational Institute of Standards (NIS)GizaEgypt
  2. 2.Chemical Industries Research Division, Polymers and Pigments DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt

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