The novelty addressed here is commenced with a view to use our formerly prepared starch nanoparticles (SNPs) of size around 80–100 nm as a starting substrate for grafting meth acrylic acid (MAA) using KMnO4, HClO4 in presence of HNO3 as innovative redox pair in aqueous medium. This was done to see the effect of SNPs with respect to well-dispersed nanosized particles, large surface areas, biodegradability and reactivity on the rate and extent of grafting. Besides; maximize the graft yield and graft reaction efficiency and reduce the homopolymer formation to lower extent. This could be accomplished via an in-depth assessment into the chief factors affecting the polymerization reaction such as initiator, monomer, SNPs and acid concentrations, time and temperature of polymerization, and liquor ratio. The results obtained indicate that the magnitude of the polymer yield including graft yield, graft reaction efficiency and homopolymer formation are determined by these factors. The structure of the resultant copolymers was confirmed instrumentally by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy; while both the surface morphology, crystalline structure and thermal properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis. Furthermore, the resultant copolymers were evaluated as environmental remediation materials via cadmium ions and cationic dyes removal from their solutions with different extent; in addition to higher swelling and chemical resistance in water as polar solvent and hydrochloric acid as acidic solution. The anticipated mechanisms involved in the synthesis are reported.
Starch nanoparticles Grafting Metal ions Cationic dyes Chemical resistance
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was funded by National Institute of standards, NIS.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest.
Young KH, Park SS, Lim ST (2015) Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B 126:607–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin N, Huang J, Chang PR, Anderson DP, Yu J (2011) Preparation, modification, and application of starch nanocrystals in nanomaterials. J Nanomater 2011:573687Google Scholar
Le Corre D, Bras J, Dufresne A (2010) Starch nanoparticles: a review. Biomacromolecules 11(5):1139–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dufresne A, Thomas S, Pothan LA (2013) Biopolymer nanocomposites: processing, properties, and applications, 1st edn. WileyGoogle Scholar
Gallant DJ, Bouchet B, Baldwin PM (1997) Microscopy of starch: evidence of a new level of granule organization. Carbohydr Polym 32(3–4):177–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hizukuri S (1986) Polymodal distribution of the chain lengths of amylopectins, and its significance. Carbohydr Res 147(2):342–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenkins PJ, Donald AM (1995) The influence of amylose on starch granule structure. Int J Biol Macromol 17(6):315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bel Haaj S, Thielemans W, Magnin A, Boufi S (2016) Starch nano crystals and starch nano particles from waxy maize as nano reinforcement: a comparative study. Carbohydr Polym 143:310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simi CK, Abraham TE (2007) Hydrophobic grafted and cross-linked starch nanoparticles for drug delivery. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 30(3):173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gao W, Lin X, Lin X, Ding J, Huang X, Wu H (2011) Preparation of nano-sized flake carboxymethyl cassava starch under ultrasonic irradiation. Carbohydr Polym 84(4):1413–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Song S, Wang C, Pan Z, Wang X (2008) Preparation and characterization of amphiphilic starch nanocrystals. J Appl Polym Sci 107(1):418–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Namazi H, Dadkhah A (2010) Convenient method for preparation of hydrophobically modified starch nanocrystals with using fatty acids. Carbohydr Polym 79(3):731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma XF, Jian RJ, Chang PR, Yu JG (2008) Fabrication and characterization of citric acid-modified starch nanoparticles/plasticized-starch composites. Biomacromolecules 9(11):3314–3320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alila S, Aloulou F, Thielemans W, Boufi S (2011) Sorption potential of modified nanocrystals for the removal of aromatic organic pollutant from aqueous solution. Ind Crops Prod 33:350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khalil MI, Mostafa KhM, Hebeish A (1990) Synthesis of poly (methacrylic acid)—starch graft copolymers using Mn-IV-acid system. Starch/Starke 42:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khalil MI, Mostafa KhM, Hebeish A (1993) Graft polymerization of acryl amide onto maize starch using potassium persulfate as initiator. Die Angewandte Macromolecular Chemie 213:14Google Scholar
Mostafa KhM (1995) Graft polymerization of methacrylic acid onto starch and hydrolyzed starch. Polym Degrad Stab 50:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM (1997) Synthesis of poly (acrylamide)—starch and hydrolyzed starches graft copolymers as a size base materials for cotton textiles. Polym Degrad Stab 55:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM, El-Sanabary AA (1997) Carboxyl containing starch and hydrolyzed starch derivatives as a size base materials for cotton textiles. Polym Degrad Stab 55:181–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM (2003) Evaluation of nitrogen containing starch and hydrolyzed starch derivatives as a size base material for cotton yarns. Carbohydr Polym 51:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM, El-Sanabary AA (2003) Graft polymerization of different monomers onto carbamated starches derived from native and hydrolyzed starches. J Appl Polym Sci 88:959–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM, Morsy MS (2004) Modification of carbohydrate polymers via grafting of methacrylonitrile onto pregelled starch using potassium monopersulphate /Fe2+ redox pair. Polym Int 53(7):885–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM, Samarkandy AR, El-Sanabary AA (2011) Grafting onto carbohydrate polymer using novel potassium persulphate/tetramethylethylene diamine redox system for initiating grafting. Adv Polym Technol 30(2):138–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mostafa KhM, El-Sanabary AA (2013) Synthesis and characterization of novel smart flocculant based on poly (MAam)—pregelled starch graft copolymers and their degraded products. Adv Polym Technol 32(2) (art. no. 21339)Google Scholar
Mostafa KhM, Osman E, Mahmoud RI, El-Sanabary AA (2018) Towards synthesis and characterization of smart materials based on chitosan using Mn-IV itaconic acid as a novel redox pair. J Polym Environ 26:3250–3261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang J, Zhu Y, Zhang Q, Lin X (2002) Experiment of preparing dialdehyde starch with corn starch. Trans CSAE 18(3):135–138Google Scholar