Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1127–1140 | Cite as

Synergistic Effects of Nano-zinc Oxide on Improving the Flame Retardancy of EVA Composites with an Efficient Triazine-Based Charring Agent

  • Bo XuEmail author
  • Wen Ma
  • Xiaolu Bi
  • Lushan Shao
  • Lijun QianEmail author
Original paper


The synergistic effect of nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on the flame retardancy and thermal stability of intumescent flame retardant ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA/IFR) consisting of novel hyperbranched triazine-based charring agent (HTCFA) and APP was evaluated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 measurement, cone calorimeter test (CCT) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the residue analysis was also carried out through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), laser raman spectroscopy (LRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that introducing a certain amount of nano-ZnO could obviously enhance LOI value and UL-94 rating, and effectively restrain the combustion performance of EVA/IFR composites, leading to the decrease of heat and smoke release. The addition of 0.5 wt% nano-ZnO into EVA/IFR composite obtained the highest catalytic effectivity (CAT-EFF). TGA results uncovered a distinct synergistic carbonization effect existed between nano-ZnO and IFR, and nano-ZnO could obviously improve the high-temperature thermal stability and promote the char formation of IFR and EVA/IFR. Analysis of final char residues proved that the incorporation of appropriate amount of nano-ZnO contributed to remaining more P and forming more high-quality graphitization char layers with richer P–O–C and P–N cross-linking structures in condensed phase owing to the catalytic carbonization effect of nano-ZnO on IFR system, which played a critical role in remarkable improvement of flame retardancy and smoke suppression properties of composites.


EVA Intumescent flame retardancy Zinc oxide Triazine-based char-forming agent Synergistic effect 



This research was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Beijing Municipality (CN) (2192014).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and Mechanical EngineeringBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Quality Evaluation Technology for Hygiene and Safety of PlasticsBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Chongqing Hongyu Precision Industrial Co., LTDChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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