Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 19–36 | Cite as

Chitosan–Gelatin @ Tin (IV) Tungstatophosphate Nanocomposite Ion Exchanger: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications in Environmental Remediation

  • Kuljit Kaur
  • Rajeev JindalEmail author
  • Riteeka Tanwar
Original Paper


The present study reported the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite by incorporating tin (IV) based ion exchanger into the hybrid polymer network of chitosan and gelatin prepared under vacuum for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions and toxic dyes from an aqueous fluid. The physicochemical studies such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), chemical stability, thermal stability, pH titration and distribution behaviour studies were also carried out to determine the cation exchange behaviour of the material. The surface morphology and structural properties were studied by the techniques such as FTIR, FESEM, EDS, TEM and XRD. Distribution studies confirmed the synthesized CG/STPNC had the highest selectivity for Pb2+ ions (85.3 mL/g). Maximum adsorption of methylene blue (82%) was achieved within 240 min at 500 mg of adsorbent dose, 10 mg/L of the initial concentration of dye, pH of 7 and 30 °C of temperature. Adsorption kinetic data fitted well with pseudo-second order rate model with R2 = 0.995. The correlation value 0.95 and favourable RL = 0.21 of adsorption data suggested better fit for Langmuir adsorption. Thus the synthesized nanocomposite ion exchanger was found to be a promising cation exchanger as well as an adsorbent for heavy metal ion and dye removal from textile industrial effluents.

Graphical abstract


Nanocomposite Ion exchanger Heavy metals Methylene blue and ion exchange capacity 







Hybrid polymer network




Ion exchange capacity


Chitosan–gelatin/Sn(iv)tungstatophosphate nanocomposite


Sn (IV) tungstatophosphate


Methylene blue



One of the authors is highly grateful to MHRD for providing financial assistance to carry out research. The author is also thankful to Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Materials research centre, MNIT Jaipur, SAIF facility, Punjab University, Chandigarh for different characterization of samples and DST-FIST for providing financial assistance for the procurement of equipment like FTIR and UV–Visible spectrophotometer used in the characterization of the samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Data availability

The raw/processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time as the data also forms part of an ongoing study.


  1. 1.
    Hui KS, Chao CYH, Kot SC (2005) Removal of mixed heavy metal ions in wastewater by zeolite 4A and residual products from recycled coal fly ash. J Hazard Mater 127:89–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ayhan S (2008) Adsorption of malachite green onto bentonite: equilibrium and kinetic studies and process design. 115:234–246.
  3. 3.
    Sharma J, Chadha AS, Pruthi V et al (2017) Sequestration of dyes from artificially prepared textile effluent using RSM-CCD optimized hybrid backbone based adsorbent-kinetic and equilibrium studies. J Environ Manag 190:176–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shanker U, Rani M, Jassal V (2017) Degradation of hazardous organic dyes in water by nanomaterials. Environ Chem Lett 15:623–642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amini M, Ashrafi M (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of some organic dyes under solar light irradiation using TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. Nano Chem Res 1:79–86. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manage 92:407–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Issazadeh H, Engineering G (2015) Preparation of new conductive polymer nanocomposites for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters Leila Zoleikani, Hossein Issazadeh, Bahman ZareNezhad. 71–80Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee SB, Ha DI, Cho SK et al (2003) Temperature/pH-sensitive comb-type graft hydrogels composed of chitosan and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharma J, Anand P, Pruthi V et al (2017) RSM-CCD optimized adsorbent for the sequestration of carcinogenic rhodamine-B: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Mater Chem Phys 196:270–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vermeer AWP, McCulloch JK, Van Riemsdijk WH, Koopal LK (1999) Metal ion adsorption to complexes of humic acid and metal oxides: deviations from the additivity rule. Environ Sci Technol 33:3892–3897. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zavvar Mousavi H, Seyedi SR (2010) Kinetic and equilibrium studies on the removal of pb (ii) from aqueous solution using nettle ash. J Chil Chem Soc 55:307–311. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naushad M, Alothman ZA, Awual MR, Alam MM, Eldesoky GE, Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies for the adsorption of Pb2+ and Hg2+ metal ions from aqueous medium using Ti(IV) iodovanadate cation exchanger. Ionics 2237:224–221.
  13. 13.
    Sharma P, Jindal R, Maiti M, Jana AK (2016) Novel organic–inorganic composite material as a cation exchanger from a triterpenoidal system of dammar gum: synthesis, characterization and application. Iran Polym J. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pathania D, Gupta D, Al-Muhtaseb AH et al (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of highly toxic dyes using chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/ZnS in presence of solar irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 329:61–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Naushad M, Mittal A, Rathore M, Gupta V (2015) Ion-exchange kinetic studies for Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) metal ions over a composite cation exchanger. Desalin Water Treat 54:2883–2890. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naushad M, AL-Othman ZA, Islam M (2013) Adsorption of cadmium ion using a new composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Sn(IV) silicate: kinetics, thermodynamic and isotherm studies. Int J Environ Sci Technol 10:567–578. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Çay S, Uyanik A, Özaşik A (2004) Single and binary component adsorption of copper(II) andcadmium(II) from aqueous solutions using tea-industry waste. Sep Purif Technol 38:273–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Naushad M, ALOthman ZA, Javadian H (2015) Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid-Zr(IV) iodate composite cation exchanger: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies. J Ind Eng Chem 25:35–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bushra R, Naushad M, Adnan R et al (2015) Polyaniline supported nanocomposite cation exchanger: synthesis, characterization and applications for the efficient removal of Pb2+ ion from aqueous medium. J Ind Eng Chem 21:1112–1118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Siddiqi ZM, Pathania D (2003) Studies on titanium(IV) tungstosilicate and titanium(IV) tungstophosphate. II. Separation and estimation of heavy metals from aquatic environments. Acta Chromatogr 172–184Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pathania D, Thakur M, Mishra AK (2017) Alginate–Zr (IV) phosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger: binary separation of heavy metals, photocatalysis and antimicrobial activity. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kullberg L (1984) Edited by A. Clearfield (Texas ASM University). CRC Press, Inc, Raton B, Fl. 1982. 304 pp. $ 84.50. Solvent Extr Ion Exch 2:121–122.
  23. 23.
    Naushad M (2014) Surfactant assisted nano-composite cation exchanger: Development, characterization and applications for the removal of toxic Pb2 + from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 235:100–108. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Varshney KG, Khan AA, Siddiqui MS (1989) Synthesis, ion exchange behaviour and characterization of chromium(III) arsenosilicate cation exchanger. Colloids Surf 36:405–416. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    New AA, Exchanger C, Varshney KG et al (1998) Synthesis and characterization of zirconium. 7353–7358Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jindal R, Sharma R, Maiti M, Kaur H (2016) In air synthesis of psyllium based organo- inorganic hybrid ion exchanger, its characterization and studies. 1:22–29Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Narayana S, Graduate P (2006) Synthetic inorganic ion exchangers Reetha Nanu Cheruvalath “Studies on some ion exchangers &#8221Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saruchi KV, Kaith BS, Jindal R (2016) Synthesis of hybrid ion exchanger for rhodamine B dye removal: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:10492–10499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pathania D, Sharma G, Thakur R (2015) Pectin @ zirconium (IV) silicophosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger: photo catalysis, heavy metal separation and antibacterial activity. Chem Eng J 267:235–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pathania D, Gupta D, Agarwal S et al (2016) Fabrication of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS nanocomposite for controlled drug delivery and antibacterial activity. Mater Sci Eng C 64:428–435. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaith BS, Sharma J, Kaur T et al (2016) Microwave-assisted green synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite: removal of Malachite green from waste water. Iran Polym J (English Ed) 25:787–797. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rana P, Mohan N, Rajagopal C (2004) Electrochemical removal of chromium from wastewater by using carbon aerogel electrodes. Water Res 38:2811–2820. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mobasherpour I, Salahi E, Pazouki M (2011) Removal of divalent cadmium cations by means of synthetic nano crystallite hydroxyapatite. Desalination 266:142–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ma Y, Zheng YM, Chen JP (2011) A zirconium based nanoparticle for significantly enhanced adsorption of arsenate: synthesis, characterization and performance. J Colloid Interface Sci 354:785–792. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sharma G, Pathania D, Naushad M (2015) Preparation, characterization, and ion exchange behavior of nanocomposite polyaniline zirconium(IV) selenotungstophosphate for the separation of toxic metal ions. Ionics 21:1045–1055. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peng Z, Peng Z, Shen Y (2011) Fabrication and properties of gelatin/chitosan composite hydrogel. Polym Plast Technol Eng 50:1160–1164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mao JS, Zhao LG, Yin YJ, Yao K, De (2003) Structure and properties of bilayer chitosan–gelatin scaffolds. Biomaterials 24:1067–1074. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Albadarin AB, Collins MN, Naushad M et al (2017) Activated lignin–chitosan extruded blends for efficient adsorption of methylene blue. Chem Eng J 307:264–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sharma G, Naushad M, Al-Muhtaseb AH et al (2017) Fabrication and characterization of chitosan-crosslinked-poly(alginic acid) nanohydrogel for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) metal ion from aqueous medium. Int J Biol Macromol 95:484–493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kumar A, Guo C, Sharma G et al (2016) Magnetically recoverable ZrO2/Fe3O4/chitosan nanomaterials for enhanced sunlight driven photoreduction of carcinogenic Cr(VI) and dechlorination and mineralization of 4-chlorophenol from simulated waste water. RSC Adv 6:13251–13263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Muhmood T, Xia M, Lei W, Wang F (2018) Under vacuum synthesis of type-I heterojunction between red phosphorus and graphene like carbon nitride with enhanced catalytic, electrochemical and charge separation ability for photodegradation of an acute toxicity category-III compound. Appl Catal B Environ 238:568–575. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Therdthai N, Zhou W (2009) Characterization of microwave vacuum drying and hot air drying of mint leaves (Mentha cordifolia Opiz ex Fresen). J Food Eng 91:482–489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Deng H, Lu J, Li G et al (2011) Adsorption of methylene blue on adsorbent materials produced from cotton stalk. Chem Eng J 172:326–334. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang L, Zhang J, Wang A (2008) Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite superadsorbent nanocomposite. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 322:47–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mi FL (2005) Synthesis and characterization of a novel chitosan-gelatin bioconjugate with fluorescence emission. Biomacromol 6:975–987. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sharma G, Kumar A, Pathania D, Sillanpa M (2016) Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Polyacrylamide @ Zr (IV) vanadophosphate nanocomposite: Ion exchange properties, antibacterial activity, and photocatalytic behavior. J Ind Eng Chem 33:201–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Siddiqi ZM, Pathania D (2003) Titanium(IV) tungstosilicate and titanium(IV) tungstophosphate: two new inorganic ion exchangers. J Chromatogr A 987:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaith BS, Jindal R, Sharma R (2015) Synthesis of a Gum rosin alcohol-poly(acrylamide) based adsorbent and its application in removal of malachite green dye from waste water. RSC Adv 5:43092–43104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fain SC, Sorensen L, Vilches OE (2011) Electron diffraction. 1–8Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Naushad M, Ahamad T, Al-Maswari BM et al (2017) Nickel ferrite bearing nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as efficient adsorbent for the removal of highly toxic metal ion from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J 330:1351–1360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Alothman ZA, Ghfar AA (2017) Novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based composite material for the sequestration of U(VI) and Th(IV) metal ions from aqueous environment. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:36026–36037. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ovchinnikov O, Chernykh S, Smirnov MS et al (2007) Analysis of interaction between the organic dye methylene blue and the surface of AgCl (I) microcrystals. J Appl Spectrosc 74:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vargas AMM, Cazetta AL, Kunita MH et al (2011) Adsorption of methylene blue on activated carbon produced from flamboyant pods (Delonix regia): Study of adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. Chem Eng J 168:722–730. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Su F, Lu C, Hu S (2010) Adsorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene by NaOCl-oxidized carbon nanotubes. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 353:83–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fu Y, Huang Y, Hu J (2018) Preparation of chitosan/MCM-41-PAA nanocomposites and the adsorption behaviour of Hg (II) ions. R Soc Chem 171927Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaur S, Jindal R, Kaur Bhatia J (2018) Synthesis and RSM–CCD optimization of microwave-induced green interpenetrating network hydrogel adsorbent based on gum copal for selective removal of malachite green from waste water. Polym Eng Sci 1–11.
  57. 57.
    Das S, Subuddhi U (2013) Cyclodextrin mediated controlled release of naproxen from pH-sensitive chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels for colon targeted delivery. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:14192–14200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jindal R, Sharma R, Maiti M, Sharma A (2017) Synthesis and characterization of novel reduced gum rosin—acrylamide copolymer based bimetallic nanogel and their investigation for antimicrobial activity. Polym Bull 74:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ho YS, McKay G (1998) Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat. Chem Eng J 70:115–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Pathania D et al (2013) Use of pectin-thorium (IV) tungstomolybdate nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. Carbohydr Polym 96:277–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Daneshvar E, Vazirzadeh A, Niazi A et al (2017) Desorption of Methylene blue dye from brown macroalga: effects of operating parameters, isotherm study and kinetic modeling. J Clean Prod 152:443–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khan MA, ALOthman ZA, Naushad M et al (2015) Adsorption of methylene blue on strongly basic anion exchange resin (Zerolit DMF): kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies. Desalin Water Treat 53:515–523. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Naushad M, Ali Khan M, Abdullah Alothman Z et al (2016) Adsorption of methylene blue on chemically modified pine nut shells in single and binary systems: isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies. Desalin Water Treat 57:15848–15861. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Alothman ZA, Ahamad T (2018) Adsorptive performance of MOF nanocomposite for methylene blue and malachite green dyes: kinetics, isotherm and mechanism. J Environ Manag 223:29–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryDr B R Ambedkar National Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia

Personalised recommendations