Hybrid Adsorbent Materials Obtained by the Combination of Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) with Lignin and Lignosulfonate
- 80 Downloads
Lignin is one of the most available biomass products, but its potential for the development of functional materials has yet to be unleashed. Here, the modification of lignin and lignosulfonate with poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) [P(E-alt-MA)], a functional polymer of wide industrial use, is accomplished by means of a simple esterification reaction. As a result, hybrid adsorbent materials for water purification can be obtained, which were thoroughly characterized. The combination of P(E-alt-MA) with lignin increased hydrophilicity of the latter, making it dispersible in aqueous environments, while with lignosulfonate it gave rise to a water-insoluble, thus easily recoverable, product. The adsorption properties of the resulting products have been tested against a model water pollutant (methylene blue), demonstrating remarkable adsorption speed (in the order of minutes), adsorption efficiency and stability over a wide range of pH (2–12). Moreover, after the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles by in situ synthesis, adsorbent materials able to be magnetically recovered were developed.
KeywordsLignin Lignosulfonate Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) Adsorbent materials Water purification
The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their help improving the quality of this manuscript. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Chung H, Washburn NR (2015) Extraction and types of lignin. In: Omar F, Mohini S (eds) Lignin in polymer composites. William Andrew, New York, pp 13–25Google Scholar
- 5.Gargulak JD, Lebo SE Jr, McNally TJ (2001) Lignin. In: Kroschwitz JI (ed) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 6.Duval A, Lawoko M (2014) A review on lignin-based polymeric, micro- and nano-structured materials. React Funct Polym 85:78–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2014.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Schwarzenbach RP, Egli T, Hofstetter TB et al (2010) Global water pollution and human health. Annu Rev Environ Resour 35:109–136. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Mamdouh MN, MacKay GDM (1984) Mechanism of thermal decomposition of lignin. Wood Fiber Sci 16:441–453Google Scholar