Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 4243–4257 | Cite as

Photo-Stabilisation and UV Blocking Efficacy of Coated Macro and Nano-Rutile Titanium Dioxide Particles in Paints and Coatings

  • Norman S. AllenEmail author
  • Robert McIntyre
  • Julie Maltby Kerrod
  • Claire Hill
  • Michele EdgeEmail author
Original Paper


Surface treated macro and nanoparticle TiO2 samples have been prepared, characterised and their efficiency as UV blockers evaluated in clear coatings and paints. The particle size of the ‘base’ TiO2 has been optimised to block UV radiation and the surface treatment developed to deactivate the photocatalytic activity of the surface of the TiO2 particles. The resultant UV blockers have been evaluated in both solvent and water-based clear coatings. Nanoparticle TiO2 has been prepared from ‘seed’ and the particle size was controlled by calcination. It was found that the choice of particle size is a compromise between UVA absorption, UVB absorption, visible transmission and photoactivity. It has been demonstrated that TiO2 with a crystallite size of 25 nm yields a product with the optimum properties. A range of dispersants was successfully used to disperse and mill the TiO2. Both organic and inorganic dispersants were used; 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-amino-2-propanol (MIPA) and P2O5 and Na2SiO3 respectively. The surface of the nano-TiO2 was coated with mixed oxides of silicon, aluminium, zirconium and phosphorous. Addition of the resultant coated nano-rutiles to an Isocyanate Acrylic clear coating prolonged the lifetime of that coating compared to the blank. Generally, a surface treatment based on SiO2, Al2O3 and P2O5 was more successful than one based on ZrO2, Al2O3 and P2O5. Higher addition levels of the surface treatment were beneficial for protecting the polymeric coating. The UV blocker products were also evaluated in a water-based acrylic, first a water-based dispersion of the UV blocker was prepared before addition to the acrylic. The dispersions and resultant acrylic thin films were evaluated using UV/Vis spectroscopy and durability assessed. The ratio of absorbance at 300:500 nm for the water-based dispersion was shown to be a good predictor of both the transparency of the resultant acrylic thin film and the durability of that film, in terms of weight loss. Macro grade titanium dioxide pigments were also prepared and coated with treatments of silica, alumina and siloxane and their photo-stabilising activity in alkyd paint film assessed and found to be directly related to the electron–hole pair mobility and trapping as determined by micro-wave spectroscopy.


Titanium dioxide Surface treatments Silica Alumina Acrylic paints Nano-particles Alkyd paints Photooxidation Degradation Stabilisation 



The authors thank Millenium Chemicals (now Cristal Global) for allowing one of the co-authors Claire Hill (ne-Bygott) to submit part of this work for the degree of PhD at MMU.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Chemistry, School of Science and the Environment, Faculty of Science and EngineeringManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK
  2. 2.Cristal GlobalGrimsbyUK

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