Fabrication of Natural Fiber Composites Consisting of Osage Orange Seed flour Reinforced with Non-woven Hemp Mats
- 46 Downloads
Natural fiber composites (NFC) were fabricated using a matrix consisting of an aqueous slurry of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. family Moraceae) seed meal (OOSM) (50, 75 or 100 g L− 1) reinforced with non-woven hemp mats (450, 650, 800, 1000, 1200, or 1350 g m− 2 surface densities). OOSM behaves as a thermoset adhesive/resin similar to soy flours. Non-woven mats of 7.6 cm W × 17.8 cm L of various surface densities were soaked in aqueous slurries for 30 min under vacuum and then directly hot pressed at 185 °C and 4.3 MPa for 4:30 min. NFCs matrix:reinforcement percentages varied depending on the surface density of the hemp mat employed. NFCs were evaluated for their mechanical, physical and dimensional stability properties. The OOSM slurry matrix was found to be as effective as matrices generated from soy flour or soy protein isolate slurries. The influence of various temperatures for processing was also evaluated.
KeywordsBio-based composites Flexural properties Tensile properties Soy flour Soy protein isolate Surface roughness Thermoset
The author is grateful for the Osage orange seeds by Dr. Alan Gravett of Hedgeapple Biotech, Bloomington, IL and technical assistance provided by Nicholas Montesdeoca and David Kukla of the USDA-ARS-NCAUR. Mention of a trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
- 2.Yu ZC, Alcock M, Rothwell E, McKay S (2009) Proc 12th ICCM, Jul 27–31, 2009Google Scholar
- 8.Westman MP, Fifield LS, Simmons KL, Laddha SG, Kafentzis T (2010) Natural fiber composites: a review. USDE, PNNL-19220, Mar 2010Google Scholar
- 9.Ratim S, Bonnia NN, Surip SN (2012) 2nd APCTP Work Adv Mat Nanotech. AIP Conf Proc 1455:131Google Scholar
- 12.Chabba S, Matthews GF, Netravali AN (2005) Roy Soc Chem 7:576Google Scholar
- 13.Drzal LT, Mohanty AK, Liu W, Thayer K, Misra M (2009) US Patent No:US 7576147:B2Google Scholar
- 14.Kelley MD, Manna J (2009) US Patent No:US 2009/0232953 AGoogle Scholar
- 18.Deepmala C, Singh VK, Chauhan S, Jain N (2017) RRJOMS 5:66Google Scholar
- 20.Frihart CR, Hunt CG, Birkeland MJ (2014) In: Recent Adv Adh Sci Technol CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 21.Alibaba.com (2018) https://www.alibaba.com/showroom/defatted-soy-flour.html
- 22.Alibaba.com (2018) https://www.alibaba.com/showroom/price-soy-protein-isolates.html
- 24.Tisserat B, Reifschneider L, Gravett A, Peterson SC (2017) Bioresources 12:7898Google Scholar
- 26.Mitchell L (2017) http://www.thenewmix.com/2017/10/25/hedge-apples-are-valuable/
- 27.Realhemp (2018) Indiana Hemp Ind Assoc http://www.realhemp.com/hemp-industries/hemp-biocomposites/
- 29.He Z, Chapital DC, Cheng HN (2016) J Appl Polym Sci 133:43637Google Scholar
- 31.Ayrilmis N (2011) Bioresources 6:3178Google Scholar
- 33.Salasinska K, Ryszkowska J (2012) ECCM15-15th Venice, Italy, 24–28 June, 2012Google Scholar