Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 3902–3912 | Cite as

Biological Macromolecule Composite Films Made from Sagu Starch and Flour/Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Blends Processed by Blending/Thermo Molding

  • Tomy J. GutiérrezEmail author
Original Paper


Non-conventional starch sources (starch and flour) obtained from sagu (Canna edulis Kerr) rhizomes grown in the Venezuelan Amazon were used as biological macromolecule matrices. Biological macromolecule composite films prepared from sagu starch and flour/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends were then obtained by blending/thermo molding. The use of flours as a rich source of starch has attracted much attention as they are cheaper than starch, thus making them commercially more competitive. The PCL-containing films proved to be less stable in an alkaline medium and less dense (0.60–0.66 g/cm3), and were also thinner (1.15–1.17 mm), rougher, more crystalline (20.5–27.1%) and opaque (1.45–1.52) than the films without added PCL. Films made from the flour/PCL blend showed a greater phase separation than the starch/PCL films. The use of flour as a starchy source is interesting. However, the results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water activity suggest that the films prepared from sagu starch-glycerol had stronger hydrogen bonding interactions than those made from flour-glycerol. This led to the sagu starch-based film being less susceptible to moisture and more stable under alkaline conditions.


Biological macromolecules Microstructure Non-conventional starches Physicochemical properties Polymer composites 



The authors would like to thank the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Postdoctoral fellowship internal PDTS-Resolution 2417), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP) for financial support. Dr. Mirian Carmona-Rodríguez for their valuable contribution. Thanks also to the Institute of Food Science and Technology (ICTA) of the Central University of Venezuela (UCV), especially Jusneydy Suniaga, for managing the purchase of the rhizomes from the Venezuelan Amazon, as well as obtaining isolated starch and flour, and the determination of water activity and color parameters of the films. Many thanks also to Dr. Gema González and M.Sc. Antonio Monsalve of Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC) for allowing the M.Sc. Kelvia Álvarez to carry out the acquisition of AFM images in her laboratory.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10924_2018_1268_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 KB)


  1. 1.
    Gutiérrez TJ (2017) Effects of exposure to pulsed light on molecular aspects of edible films made from cassava and taro starch. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 41:387–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gutiérrez TJ (2017) Surface and nutraceutical properties of edible films made from starchy sources with and without added blackberry pulp. Carbohydr Polym 165:169–179. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fabra MJ, Lopez-Rubio A, Lagaron JM (2013) High barrier polyhydroxyalcanoate food packaging film by means of nanostructured electrospun interlayers of zein. Food Hydrocoll 32:106–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ortega-Toro R, Morey I, Talens P, Chiralt A (2015) Active bilayer films of thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone obtained by compression molding. Carbohydr Polym 127:282–290. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ortega-Toro R, Contreras J, Talens P, Chiralt. A (2015) Physical and structural properties and thermal behaviour of starch-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) blend films for food packaging. Shelf Life 5:10–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kweon D-K, Kawasaki N, Nakayama A, Aiba S (2004) Preparation and characterization of starch/polycaprolactone blend. J Appl Polym Sci 92:1716–1723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gutiérrez TJ, Alvarez VA (2017) Films made by blending poly(ε-caprolactone) with starch and flour from sagu rhizome grown at the venezuelan amazons. J Polym Environ 25:701–716. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gutiérrez TJ, Alvarez VA (2017) Cellulosic materials as natural fillers in starch-containing matrix-based films: a review. Polym Bull 74:2401–2430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pérez E, Bahnassey YA, Breene WM (1993) A simple laboratory scale method for isolation of amaranth starch. Starch-Stärke 45:211–214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pacheco E (2001) Evaluación nutricional de sopas deshidratadas a base de harina de plátano verde. Digestibilidad in vitro de almidón, Acta Científica Venez 52:278–282.
  11. 11.
    Mollega Mainsard IP (2008) Caracterización y biodegradación de mezclas de policaprolactona y poliácido láctico con almidón de yuca. Universidad Simón Bolívar.
  12. 12.
    Maliger RB, Halley PJ (2014) Reactive extrusion for thermoplastic starch-polymer blends. In: Halley PJ, Avérous LR (eds) Starch polymers. Elsevier, Burlington, pp 291–317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biliaderis CG, Lazaridou A, Arvanitoyannis I (1999) Glass transition and physical properties of polyol-plasticised pullulan–starch blends at low moisture. Carbohydr Polym 40:29–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merino D, Ludueña LN, Alvarez VA (2018) Dissimilar tendencies of innovative green clay organo-modifier on the final properties of poly(ε-caprolactone) based nanocomposites. J Polym Environ 26(2):716–727. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Tsuji, T. Ishizaka, Porous biodegradable polyesters, 3. preparation of porous poly(ε-caprolactone) films from blends by selective enzymatic removal of poly(l-lactide), Macromol Biosci 1 (2001) 59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Valencia MT, Rodríguez (2001) Efecto del tratamiento de preservación por depresión e la actividad acuosa en la calidad del alga. Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Atarés L, Bonilla J, Chiralt A (2010) Characterization of sodium caseinate-based edible films incorporated with cinnamon or ginger essential oils. J Food Eng 100:678–687. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASTM D1925-70 (1988) Test method for yellowness index of plastics.
  19. 19.
    Han JH, Floros JD (1997) Casting antimicrobial packaging films and measuring their physical properties and antimicrobial activity. J Plast Film Sheeting 13:287–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pereira VA, de Arruda INQ, Stefani R (2015) Active chitosan/PVA films with anthocyanins from Brassica oleraceae (Red Cabbage) as time–temperature indicators for application in intelligent food packaging. Food Hydrocoll 43:180–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shi R, Zhang Z, Liu Q, Han Y, Zhang L, Chen D, Tian W (2007) Characterization of citric acid/glycerol co-plasticized thermoplastic starch prepared by melt blending. Carbohydr Polym 69:748–755. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mathew S, Brahmakumar M, Abraham TE (2006) Microstructural imaging and characterization of the mechanical, chemical, thermal, and swelling properties of starch–chitosan blend films. Biopolymers 82:176–187. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Batista Reis LC, Oliveira de Souza C, Alves da Silva JB, Martins AC, Larroza Nunes I, Druzian JI (2015) Active biocomposites of cassava starch: the effect of yerba mate extract and mango pulp as antioxidant additives on the properties and the stability of a packaged product. Food Bioprod Process 94:382–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pérez E, Segovia X, Tapia MS, Schroeder M (2012) Native and cross-linked modified Dioscorea trifida (cush-cush yam) starches as bio-matrices for edible films. J Cell Plast 48:545–556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gutiérrez TJ, Tapia MS, Pérez E, Famá L (2015) Structural and mechanical properties of edible films made from native and modified cush-cush yam and cassava starch. Food Hydrocoll 45:211–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pelissari FM, Andrade-Mahecha MM, PJ do A Sobral, Menegalli FC (2013) Comparative study on the properties of flour and starch films of plantain bananas (Musa paradisiaca). Food Hydrocoll. 30:681–690. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Müller CMO, Laurindo JB, Yamashita F (2009) Effect of cellulose fibers addition on the mechanical properties and water vapor barrier of starch-based films. Food Hydrocoll 23:1328–1333. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jay JM (1995) Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth. In: Jay JM (ed) Modern food microbiol. 5th ed. Springer, Boston, pp 38–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gutiérrez TJ, Suniaga J, Monsalve A, García NL (2016) Influence of beet flour on the relationship surface-properties of edible and intelligent films made from native and modified plantain flour. Food Hydrocoll 54:234–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gutiérrez TJ, Morales NJ, Pérez E, Tapia MS, Famá L (2015) Physico-chemical properties of edible films derived from native and phosphated cush-cush yam and cassava starches. Food Packag Shelf Life 3:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Labet M, Thielemans W (2009) Synthesis of polycaprolactone: a review. Chem Soc Rev 38:3484–3504. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mitrus M (2005) Glass transition temperature of thermoplastic starches. Int Agrophys 19:237–241.
  33. 33.
    López OV, Versino F, Villar MA, García MA (2015) Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films. Carbohydr Polym 134:324–332. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gutiérrez TJ, González G (2016) Effects of exposure to pulsed light on surface and structural properties of edible films made from cassava and taro starch. Food Bioprocess Technol 9:1812–1824. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sukhija S, Singh S, Riar CS (2016) Analyzing the effect of whey protein concentrate and psyllium husk on various characteristics of biodegradable film from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome starch. Food Hydrocoll 60:128–137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grupo de Materiales Compuestos Termoplásticos (CoMP), Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA), Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP) y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)Mar del PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations