Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Starch Bioactive Packaging Film Enriched with Antioxidants from Spent Coffee Ground and Citric Acid
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The bioactive packaging polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/starch films were prepared by incorporating combined antioxidant agents i.e. extracted spent coffee ground (ex-SCG) and citric acid. Effect of citric acid content on chemical compatibility, releasing of antioxidant, antibacterial activities, and physical and mechanical properties of PVA/starch incorporated ex-SCG (PSt-E) films was studied. The results of ATR-FTIR spectra showed that antioxidant agents of ex-SCG can penetrate into the film and the ester bond of blended films by citric acid was also observed. The presence of ex-SCG increased efficiency of antioxidant release and antimicrobial activity. The PSt-E film incorporated 30 wt% citric acid showed minimum inhibitory concentration against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The incorporation of ex-SCG and citric acid into film showed a synergistic effect on antibacterial activity. The water resistance and kinetic moisture sorption improved with incorporation of citric acid. The tensile strength and biodegradability of samples were in range of 5.63–7.44 MPa and 65.28–86.64%, respectively. Based on this study, PSt-E film incorporated 30 wt% citric acid can be applied as novel food packaging materials.
KeywordsSynergistic antibacterial activity Bioactive film Spent coffee ground Citric acid
This work was financial supported by New Research Group, Research fund of the faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University and the Applied Engineering for Important Crops of the North East Research Group, Khon Kaen University. The authors also would like to acknowledge the support of Hitachi Scholarship Research and Tokyo Institute of Technology. The authors thank Prof. Shinji Ando at Tokyo Institute of Technology for helpful advice and utilization of ATR-FTIR and SEM.
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