Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 3677–3697 | Cite as

Removal of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Loaded on Zein as an Efficient and Green Adsorbent: Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm

  • Shima Ghanavati Nasab
  • Abolfazl SemnaniEmail author
  • Abbas Teimouri
  • Homa Kahkesh
  • Tahereh Momeni Isfahani
  • Saeed Habibollahi
Original Paper


This study is based on the application of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles loaded on Zein (Zein/nHAp) as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions. The properties of the adsorbent were characterized using various techniques including FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, and BET. The influence of five parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration, and adsorbent dosage on the removal percentage of the dye was investigated. The optimum conditions of 5.83, 34.32 °C, 5.20 min, 392.10 ppm, and 0.007 g were achieved for pH, temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration, and adsorbent dosage, respectively. The maximum removal percentage of 99.48% was obtained under the optimum condition that exhibited high adsorption potential of the used adsorbent. Central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were utilized for optimization of parameters. Comparison of the results of the two models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and mean absolute percentage error confirmed the prediction potential of CCD and ANN-GA. Higher ability and accuracy of ANN-GA in prediction was found based on given results. The experimental equilibrium data were studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevic isotherm models and explored that the data well presented by Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 416.66 mg/g. The adsorption kinetic was well-fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamics of the adsorption displayed spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. Regeneration investigation showed that Zein/nHAp can impressively be reused, indicating that the adsorbent was a promising one for the removal of Congo red from aqueous solution.

Graphical Abstract


Adsorption Congo red dye Zein Nanohydroxyapatite Design of experiment Artificial neural network-genetic algorithm 



The authors appreciate Shahrekord University and the Center of Excellence for Mathematics, Shahrekord University. The authors also wish to thank Mehdi Javaheran Yazd for his assistance in various stages of the work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shima Ghanavati Nasab
    • 1
  • Abolfazl Semnani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abbas Teimouri
    • 2
  • Homa Kahkesh
    • 2
  • Tahereh Momeni Isfahani
    • 3
  • Saeed Habibollahi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of ShahrekordShahrekordIran
  2. 2.Chemistry DepartmentPayame Noor UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryIslamic Azad University-Arak BranchArakIran

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