Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 3889–3901 | Cite as

Production of Bio-chewing Gum Based on Saqqez as the Biopolymer: Its Biodegradability and Textural Properties

  • Farzad Saberi
  • Mehdi Naderi
  • Mohammad Hossein NaeliEmail author
Original Paper


Commercially, chewing gum is produced based on synthetic gum base, which is non-biodegradable and remains in the environment for a long time. Accordingly, chewing gum residue can be considered as a dangerous environmental pollutant. This research was set up to develop a bio-chewing gum based on “Saqqez (Bene resin)” as the source of biopolymers. The produced bio-chewing gum was evaluated for its biodegradability (over a 20-weeks course), condition in a simulated digestive system, and textural and sensory properties; the properties were also compared with those of synthetic chewing gum. According to biodegradability studies, scanning electron microscope photographs showed that the bio-chewing gum was very well biodegradable in the environment (approximately degraded after 3 years), while the synthetic sample remained unchanged for a long time (≈ 1602 years). The SEM results also showed that the simulated digestive system did not dramatically affect the microstructure of the bio and synthetic samples. The hardness and chewiness of the bio-chewing gum were significantly higher than those of the synthetic one. However, the cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness of the bio-chewing gum were significantly lower than those observed for the synthetic sample. According to the overall acceptability scores, it can be stated that the bio-chewing gum was well appreciated by the panelists. The bio-chewing gum developed in this study is viable as a good alternative to synthetic chewing gum due to natural gum used in its production, as well as its good biodegradability and textural and overall acceptability.

Graphical Abstract


Saqqez Bio-chewing gum Biodegradability Textural features Sensory properties 



This work was financed and supported by the Master Foodeh Co. (Eshtehard, Iran). The authors are thankful to Mr. Mohammad Karimi, CEO of Master Foodeh Co. for all the material and spiritual help.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have received research grants from Master Foodeh Co. and Islamic Azad University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farzad Saberi
    • 1
  • Mehdi Naderi
    • 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Naeli
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Food ScienceGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural ResourcesGorganIran
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural EngineeringSari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources UniversitySariIran

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