Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 3307–3315 | Cite as

Recovery of Kraft Lignin from OPEFB and Using for Lignin–Agarose Hydrogel

  • Sidthipong Sathawong
  • Waranyou SridachEmail author
  • Kua-anan Techato
Original Paper


Lignins from the spent pulping liquor were normally acquired as waste product of pulp and paper mills. The possibilities of utilizing kraft lignin have yet been developed for commercial innovation. The objectives of this research are to recovery and utilization of lignin from black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFBs). Kraft lignins from the OPEFBs black liquor were recovered by acidification procedure. They were precipitated at pH 4, 3, and 2 in order that determine the optimum pH for isolation. It can be clearly seen that the best condition of lignin precipitation was at pH 3. It offered the highest yield and purity. The kraft lignin and agarose were utilized as the crude material for the production of lignin–agarose hydrogel. Lignin–agarose hydrogel could be prepared by using epichlorohydrin as the cross-linking agent. The cross-linking occurrence was recognized by FTIR. Physical and chemical properties of hydrogel were investigated. Gel strength of lignin–agarose hydrogel was characterized by texture personal analysis. The results demonstrated that the gel strength increased with increasing of lignin and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in agarose solutions. 5% lignin, 5% agarose and 10 mL ECH contributed the best gel formation and the great mechanical properties. The effect of cross-linking condition on the gel properties, for example, gel hardness and fracturability, was examined.


Kraft black liquor OPEFB’s lignin Optimum condition Lignin–agarose hydrogel Textural analysis 



The authors are extremely grateful to the Graduate School at Prince of Songkla University, the Office of the Higher Educations Commission at the Ministry of Education and Yala Rajaphat University (YRU) for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidthipong Sathawong
    • 1
  • Waranyou Sridach
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kua-anan Techato
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental ManagementPrince of Songkla UniversityHat YaiThailand
  2. 2.Department of Material Product Technology, Faculty of Agro-IndustryPrince of Songkla UniversityHat YaiThailand
  3. 3.Environmental Assessment and Technology for Hazardous Waste Management Research Center, Faculty of Environmental ManagementPrince of Songkla UniversityHat YaiThailand
  4. 4.Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM)BangkokThailand

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