Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 3655–3669 | Cite as

Development of Biocomposites from Agro Wastes for Low Dielectric Applications

  • Vaithilingam SelvarajEmail author
  • K. P. Jayanthi
  • Muthukaruppan Alagar
Original Paper


The present work is attempting to synthesize and characterizations of a novel carbazole core containing cardanol based benzoxazine monomer from carbazole core containing aromatic diamine, cardanol and paraformaldehyde. In addition, carbazole core containing cardanol based benzoxazine polymer and various weight percentages of amine functionalized rice husk ash incorporated carbazole core containing cardanol based polybenzoxazine composites were prepared. The prepared polymer and its composites were characterized by FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA and dielectric studies. The various studies confirm that the composites show increased Tg, higher char yield and better thermal stability compared to carbazole core containing cardanol based benzoxazine polymer. In addition to that the composites show significant decrease in the dielectric constant values than the neat cardanol based polybenzoxazine. The surface morphology and the distribution of rice husk ash in carbazole core containing cardanol based polybenzoxazine composites are confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. Hence, the present study has attempted to prepared eco-friendly value added carbazole core containing cardanol based polybenzoxazine products for low dielectric constant applications by making use of biowaste for both matrix and reinforcement preparation to form biowaste based composites.

Graphical Abstract

Schematic representation for the preparation of carbazole core containing cardanol based benzoxazine monomer, polybenzoxazine and biobased polybenzoxazine composites


Cardanol Rice husk ash Polybenzoxazine Carbazole Low dielectric constant 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vaithilingam Selvaraj
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. P. Jayanthi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muthukaruppan Alagar
    • 3
  1. 1.Nanotech Research Lab, Department of ChemistryUniversity College of Engineering Villupuram, (A Constituent College of Anna University, Chennai)VillupuramIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryD.M.I College of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Manufacturing, Processing and CharacterizationVignan UniversityGunturIndia

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