Crosslinked Polyacrylamide Composite Hydrogels Impregnated with Fly Ash: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Application as Fractures Sealant for High Water Producing Zones in Oil and Gas Wells
Polymeric hydrogels are designed to serve many purposes in various fields of human endeavor. Herein, crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAM) composite hydrogels impregnated with coal fly ash (CFA) were synthesized, characterized and tested as fracture sealing agents in high water producing permeable zones in petroleum industry. The concept of utilizing CFA as an inorganic additive in the matrix of hydrogel emanates from the fact that CFA constitutes majorly alumina and silica. Both chemical oxides can induce the CFA to promote the inherent properties of hydrogel. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was chosen as the crosslinking agent. Neat PAM/PEI hydrogel and PAM/PEI–CFA hydrogels at various CFA loadings (0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) were synthesized via a transamidation reaction pathway. The developed hydrogels were characterized by hybrid rheometer, FTIR, SEM and XRD instruments. Rheological results reveal that the PAM/PEI–CFA composite hydrogels embedded with various CFA quantities were more elastic than the neat PAM/PEI hydrogel, indicating the dispersion and reinforcing effect of CFA. The functional groups of these hydrogels were confirmed by the FTIR while SEM analysis show that the surface micrographs of neat PAM/PEI hydrogel and PAM/PEI–CFA1 hydrogel were porous in several regions. In contrast, the micrographs of PAM/PEI–CFA2 and PAM/PEI–CFA3 hydrogels demonstrated dense and “net-like” structural patterns. Further, XRD analysis revealed that CFA impregnation has a significant effect on the bulk structural properties of the fabricated hydrogels. The swelling rates of these hydrogels were determined by the gravimetric method and their diffusion parameters evaluated using Fickian diffusion and Schott-order kinetic models. Efficacy of the PAM/PEI–CFA composite hydrogel as fractures sealant in oil and gas wells was conducted at a typical reservoir temperature, 90 °C, and the outcome demonstrated considerable sealing potency.
KeywordsPAM/PEI Coal fly ash Hydrogel Rheology Sealant FTIR SEM XRD
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by Ministry of Education, Malaysia under Exploratory Research Scheme Grant (203/PJKIMIA/6730117) and the School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Also, special thanks go to the Center for Integrative Petroleum Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia for providing necessary assistance to conduct this work.
- 12.Sharma RK, Puri A, Kumar A, Adholeya A (2013) Chemically modified silica gel with characterization and application as an e ffi cient and reusable solid phase extractant for selective removal of Zn(II) from mycorrhizal treated fly-ash samples. J Environ Sci 25:1252–1261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60173-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Suriano R, Griffini G, Chiari M et al (2014) Rheological and mechanical behavior of polyacrylamide hydrogels chemically crosslinked with allyl agarose for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 30:339–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.12.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Huerta-angeles G, Hishchak K, Strachota A et al (2014) Super-porous nanocomposite PNIPAm hydrogels reinforced with titania nanoparticles, displaying a very fast temperature response as well as pH-sensitivity. Eur Polym J 59:341–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.07.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar