Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 3216–3225 | Cite as

Transdermal Delivery of Nicotine Using Pectin Isolated from Durian Fruit-Hulls-Based Polymer Blends as a Matrix Layer

  • Jirapornchai SuksaereeEmail author
  • Phatipan Karnsopa
  • Nannapat Wannaphruek
  • Jessada Prasomkij
  • Kamon Panrat
  • Wiwat Pichayakorn
Original Paper


Many natural polymers with various chemical structures are used to prepare transdermal patches. Pectin is a one interesting type of polymer because it can control drug release when used in transdermal patches. In Thailand, the waste from durian fruit-hulls is a major problem for the environment. However, the pectin from it can be isolated under acid conditions and used to prepare transdermal patches for nicotine delivery which has not yet been reported. As the isolated pectin is a natural polymer, the film made from isolated pectin is a brittle; therefore, adding a low protein natural rubber latex (LPNRL) polymer was needed to increase its flexibility. The transdermal patches were amorphous and had Tg values ranging from 81.0 to 93.3 °C. Moisture uptake, swelling ratio, and erosion values of the patches were significantly decreased after addition of LPNRL, which resulted in low hydrophilicity. The in vitro release and permeation of nicotine depends on the hydrophilicity of the patches. The kinetic models for in vitro release and permeation of nicotine were Higuchi model and zero order, respectively. In conclusion, pectin isolated from fruit-hulls of Mon Thong durians is an effective polymer to control the release of nicotine. It also is an option that could solve the environmental problems caused by durian fruit-hulls waste.


Durian fruit-hulls Nicotine transdermal patches Pectin Polymer blends 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Faculty of Pharmacy and the Research Institute of Rangsit University for their financial support (Grant No. 3/2560). The authors would like to express their gratitude to KI Tull, for her editing and assistance in the English language for this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of PharmacyRangsit UniversityMuangThailand
  2. 2.Pharmaceutical Laboratory Service Center, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesPrince of Songkla UniversityHat-YaiThailand
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesPrince of Songkla UniversityHat-YaiThailand

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