Medium Range Guided Wave Inspection of the Triple Point in Lined Pipes by EMATs

  • Allan R. P. DiasEmail author
  • Channa Nageswaran
  • Ricardo C. Jacques
  • Thomas G. R. Clarke


The advent of mechanically lined pipes represented a new turning point for the oil industry in terms of performance and cost for fluids transportation. However, the implementation of this technology demanded the development of new improvements such as reel-lay techniques and joining methods to ensure the reliable and safe operation of the pipeline. It also posed new challenges for inspection and flaw assessment by non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially of the joining region formed at the pipe termination by the interface between liner, steel substrate and the weld overlay used for sealing of the assembly. This region, commonly referred to as the triple point, is formed by a dissimilar weld joint with high metallurgical complexity. As a consequence, many conventional NDT techniques have failed in providing trustworthy indications of the defects. Thus, in order to find an alternative for NDT inspection to fulfil the international security standards, this paper reports the use of guided waves generated by an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) to interrogate the integrity of the triple point. The present research focused on the performance evaluation of shear horizontal waves to interrogate a test piece simulating a lined pipe structure which had artificially inserted discontinuities at the triple point region. The findings documented in this paper were achieved by the means of finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental validation of a transducer design and wave propagation in the triple point area.


EMAT Guided waves CRA lined pipes Numerical simulation 



This work was partially conducted during a scholarship supported by the International Cooperation Program Science without boarders funded by the Brazilian National Research Council CNPQ/CAPES in agreement with BG group, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGS and TWI Ltd.


  1. 1.
    P. Zumpano et al.: Challenges about testing, welding and NDT of CRA pipelines in brazilian pre-salt. In: Volume 6: materials technology; polar and arctic sciences and technology; petroleum technology symposium, p. 145 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    API: API 5LD specification for CRA clad or lined steel pipe (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Det Norske Veritas: Submarine Pipeline systems (DNV-OS-F101). Imperial College of London (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Koning, A.C., Nakasugi, H., Office, T., Ping, L.: TFP and TFT back in town (tight fit CRA lined pipe and tubing) (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thodla, R., Gui, F., Gordon, R.: Effect of reeling on fracture toughness behavior of welded API5LX65 line pipe. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2015 34th international conference on ocean, offshore and arctic engineering (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sriskandarajah, T., Rao, V., Ragupathy, P.: Seal weld fatigue assessment for CRA lined pipe for HP/HT applications. Int Offshore Polar Eng Anchorage 9, 135–146 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    DNV GL: DNVGL-RP-F108 Assessment of flaws in pipeline and riser girth welds, no. October. DNV GL AS (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Focke, E.S.: Reeling of tight fit pipe. Technische Universiteit Delft (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnston, C., Nageswaran, C., London, T.: Investigations into the fatigue strength of CRA lined pipe. In: Proc. Annu. Offshore Technol. Conf., vol. 4, no. May 2016, pp. 2–5 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tkaczyk, T., Pépin, A., Denniel, S.: “Fatigue and fracture of mechanically lined pipes installed by reeling. Pipeline Riser Technol. 3, 9 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vasilikis, D., Karamanos, S.A.: Mechanical Behavior and Wrinkling of Lined Pipes. Elsevier Ltd, Amsterdam (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lowery, H.: Industrial Radiography—Image Forming Techniques (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baiotto, R., Knight-Gregson, B., Nageswaran, C., Clarke, T.: Coherence weighting applied to FMC/TFM data from austenitic CRA clad lined pipes. J. Nondestruct. Eval. 37(3), 49 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ducharme, P., Rigault, S., Strijdonk, I., Feuilly, N.: Ultrasonic phased array inspection of fatigue sensitive riser girth welds with a weld overlay layer of corrosive resistant. Ndt.Net, p. 14 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krasnova, T., Jansson, P.Å., Boström, A.: Ultrasonic wave propagation in an anisotropic cladding with a wavy interface. Wave Motion 41(2), 163–177 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hirao, M., Ogi, H.: EMATs For Science and Industry: Noncontact Ultrasonic Measurement. Springer, Berlin (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hirao, M., Ogi, H.: An SH-wave EMAT technique for gas pipeline inspection. NDT E Int. 32(3), 127–132 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Benegal, R., Karimi, F., Filleter, T., Sinclair, A.N.: Optimization of periodic permanent magnet configuration in Lorentz-force EMATs. Res. Nondestruct. Eval. 00(00), 1–14 (2016)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ribichini, R., Cegla, F., Nagy, P.B., Cawley, P.: Evaluation of electromagnetic acoustic transducer performance on steel materials. AIP Conf. Proc. 1335(1), 785–792 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ashigwuike, E.C., Ushie, O.J., Mackay, R., Balachandran, W.: A study of the transduction mechanisms of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) on pipe steel materials. Sens. Actuators A 229, 154–165 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seher, M., Huthwaite, P., Lowe, M.J.S., Nagy, P.B.: Model-based design of low frequency lamb wave EMATs for mode selectivity. J. Nondestruct. Eval. 34(3), 1–16 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thompson, D.O., Chimenti, D.E.: Ultrasonic wave propagation through nozzles and pipes with claddings around their inner walls. Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestruct. Eval. 15(2), 307–314 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Terner, M.: Influence of gas metal arc welding parameters on the bead properties in automatic cladding. J. Weld. Join. 35(1), 16–25 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kannan, T., Yoganandh, J.: Effect of process parameters on clad bead geometry and its shape relationships of stainless steel claddings deposited by GMAW. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 47(9–12), 1083–1095 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bjaaland, H.: Evaluation of welded clad pipe—microstructures and properties (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Piscan, I., Ompusunggu, A.P., Janssens, T., Predincea, N.: Theoretical and experimental contact stiffness characterisation of nominally flat surfaces. Appl. Mech. Mater. 186, 107–113 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sherif, H.A.: Parameters affecting contact stiffness of nominally flat surfaces. Wear 145(1), 113–121 (1991)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Greenwood, J.A., Williamson, J.B.P.: Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces. Imperial College of London, London (2017)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Aleshin, V., Delrue, S., Trifonov, A., Bou Matar, O., Van Den Abeele, K.: Two dimensional modeling of elastic wave propagation in solids containing cracks with rough surfaces and friction—part I: theoretical background. Ultrasonics 82, 221 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnson, K.L.: Contact Mechanics, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1986)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Adams, G.G., Nosonovsky, M.: Contact modeling—forces. Tribol. Int. 33(5), 431–442 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    COMSOL Multiphysics: Comsol Multiphysics 5.2a Reference Manual, pp. 1–1262 (2013)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. M. Corporation: Inconel Alloy 625, vol. 625, no. 2. pp. 1–28. (2013)
  34. 34.
    Wang, Z., Stoica, A.D., Ma, D., Beese, A.M.: Diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 at room and elevated temperatures determined by neutron diffraction. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 674, 406–412 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan R. P. Dias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Channa Nageswaran
    • 2
  • Ricardo C. Jacques
    • 1
  • Thomas G. R. Clarke
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Metallurgy Laboratory (LAMEF)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.TWI Ltd, Cambridge UKCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations