Contextual Application of Pulse-Compression and Multi-frequency Distance-Gain Size Analysis in Ultrasonic Inspection of Forging
Ultrasonic pulse-echo non-destructive testing, combined with Distance Gain Size (DGS) analysis, is still the main method used for the inspection of forgings such as shafts or discs. This method allows the inspection to be carried out, assuring in turns the necessary sensitivity and defect detection capability in most of the cases. However, when testing large or highly attenuating samples with standard pulse-echo, the maximum achievable signal-to-noise ratio is limited by both the beam energy physical attenuation during the propagation and by the inherent divergence of any ultrasound beam emitted by a finite geometrical aperture. To face this issue, the application of the pulse-compression technique to the ultrasonic inspection of forgings was proposed by some of the present authors, in combination with the use of broadband ultrasonic transducers and broadband chirp excitation signals. Here, the method is extended by applying DGS analysis to the pulse-compression output signal. Both standard single-frequency/narrowband DGS and multi-frequency/broadband DGS analyses applied on pulse-compression data acquired on a forging with known defects are tested and compared. It is shown that the DGS analysis works properly with pulse-compression data collected by using a separate transmitter and receiver transducers. Narrowband analysis and broadband analyses provide almost identical results, but the latter exhibits advantages over the traditional method: it allows the inspection frequency to be optimized by using a single pair of transducers and with a single measurement. In addition, the range resolution achieved is higher than the one achievable for the narrowband case.
KeywordsUltrasonic Forging inspection Pulse compression Distance gain size curves
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 722134—NDTonAIR.
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