Contextual Application of Pulse-Compression and Multi-frequency Distance-Gain Size Analysis in Ultrasonic Inspection of Forging

  • M. K. Rizwan
  • L. Senni
  • P. Burrascano
  • S. Laureti
  • M. Goldammer
  • H. Mooshofer
  • R. Borgna
  • S. Neri
  • M. RicciEmail author


Ultrasonic pulse-echo non-destructive testing, combined with Distance Gain Size (DGS) analysis, is still the main method used for the inspection of forgings such as shafts or discs. This method allows the inspection to be carried out, assuring in turns the necessary sensitivity and defect detection capability in most of the cases. However, when testing large or highly attenuating samples with standard pulse-echo, the maximum achievable signal-to-noise ratio is limited by both the beam energy physical attenuation during the propagation and by the inherent divergence of any ultrasound beam emitted by a finite geometrical aperture. To face this issue, the application of the pulse-compression technique to the ultrasonic inspection of forgings was proposed by some of the present authors, in combination with the use of broadband ultrasonic transducers and broadband chirp excitation signals. Here, the method is extended by applying DGS analysis to the pulse-compression output signal. Both standard single-frequency/narrowband DGS and multi-frequency/broadband DGS analyses applied on pulse-compression data acquired on a forging with known defects are tested and compared. It is shown that the DGS analysis works properly with pulse-compression data collected by using a separate transmitter and receiver transducers. Narrowband analysis and broadband analyses provide almost identical results, but the latter exhibits advantages over the traditional method: it allows the inspection frequency to be optimized by using a single pair of transducers and with a single measurement. In addition, the range resolution achieved is higher than the one achievable for the narrowband case.


Ultrasonic Forging inspection Pulse compression Distance gain size curves 



This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 722134—NDTonAIR.


  1. 1.
    Krautkramer, J.: Determination of the size of defects by the ultrasonic impulse echo method. Br. J. Appl. Phys. 10, 240–245 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krautkrämer, J., Krautkrämer, H.: Detection and classification of defects. In: Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, pp. 312–329. Springer, Berlin (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Distance Gain Sizing Technique, European Standard DIN EN583-2:2001Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ricci, M., Senni, L., Burrascano, P., Borgna, R., Neri, S., Calderini, M.: Pulse-compression ultrasonic technique for the inspection of forged steel with high attenuation. Insight-Non-Destr. Test. Cond. Monit. 54(2), 91–95 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mohamed, I., Hutchins, D., Davis, L., Laureti, S., Ricci, M.: Ultrasonic NDE of thick polyurethane flexible riser stiffener material. Nondestr. Test. Eval. 32(4), 343–362 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Turin, G.L.: An introduction to matched filters. IRE Trans. on Inf. Theory 6(3), 311–329 (1960)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Misaridis, T., Jensen, J.A.: Use of modulated excitation signals in medical ultrasound. Part I: basic concepts and expected benefits. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52(2), 177–191 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burrascano, P., Callegari, S., Montisci, A., Ricci, M., Versaci, M. (eds.): Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Systems: Industrial Application Issues. Springer, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hutchins, D., Burrascano, P., Davis, L., Laureti, S., Ricci, M.: Coded waveforms for optimised air-coupled ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation. Ultrasonics 54(7), 1745–1759 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Novak, A., Simon, L., Kadlec, F., Lotton, P.: Nonlinear system identification using exponential swept-sine signal. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59(8), 2220–2229 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pollakowski, M., Ermert, H.: Chirp signal matching and signal power optimization in pulse-echo mode ultrasonic nondestructive testing. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 41(5), 655–659 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Challis, R.E., Ivchenko, V.G.: Sub-threshold sampling in a correlation-based ultrasonic spectrometer. Meas. Sci. Technol. 22(2), 025902 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ricci, M., Senni, L., Burrascano, P.: Exploiting pseudorandom sequences to enhance noise immunity for air-coupled ultrasonic nondestructive testing. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 2905–2915 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burrascano, P., Laureti, S., Senni, L., Ricci, M.: Pulse compression in nondestructive testing applications: reduction of near sidelobes exploiting reactance transformation. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 99, 1–11 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pallav, P., Gan, T.H., Hutchins, D.: Elliptical-Tukey chirp signal for high-resolution, air-coupled ultrasonic imaging. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1530–1540 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schmerr, L., Song, J.S.: Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Systems. Springer, New York (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Certo, M., Nardoni, G., Nardoni, P., Feroldi, M., Nardoni, D.: DGS curve evaluation applied to ultrasonic phased array testing. Insight-Non-destr. Test. Cond. Monit. 52(4), 192–194 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krautkrämer, J., Krautkrämer, H.: Ultrasonic Testing of Materials. Springer, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kleinert, W.: Defect Sizing Using Non-destructive Ultrasonic Testing: Applying Bandwidth-dependent Dac and Dgs Curves. Springer, New York (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fendt, K.T., Mooshofer, H., Rupitsch, S.J., Ermert, H.: Ultrasonic defect characterization in heavy rotor forgings by means of the synthetic aperture focusing technique and optimization methods. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 63(6), 874–885 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di IngegneriaUniversità di PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheRomeItaly
  3. 3.SIEMENS AG Corporate TechnologyMunichGermany
  4. 4.Acciai Speciali TerniTerniItaly
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Modellistica, Elettronica e SistemisticaUniversità della CalabriaRendeItaly

Personalised recommendations