Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 133–160 | Cite as

Emotional Expression: Advances in Basic Emotion Theory

  • Dacher KeltnerEmail author
  • Disa Sauter
  • Jessica Tracy
  • Alan Cowen
Review Paper


In this article, we review recent developments in the study of emotional expression within a basic emotion framework. Dozens of new studies find that upwards of 20 emotions are signaled in multimodal and dynamic patterns of expressive behavior. Moving beyond word to stimulus matching paradigms, new studies are detailing the more nuanced and complex processes involved in emotion recognition and the structure of how people perceive emotional expression. Finally, we consider new studies documenting contextual influences upon emotion recognition. We conclude by extending these recent findings to questions about emotion-related physiology and the mammalian precursors of human emotion.


Emotional expression Physiology Contextual influences Basic Emotion Theory Social interaction Vocal expression Facial expression Emotion 



This research was supported in part by a Grant from the John Templeton Foundation (88210).


  1. Anderson, C. L., Monroy, M., & Keltner, D. (2018). Emotion in the wilds of nature: The coherence and contagion of fear during threatening group-based outdoors experiences. Emotion, 18(3), 355–368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. App, B., McIntosh, D. N., Reed, C. L., & Hertenstein, M. J. (2011). Nonverbal channel use in communication of emotion: How may depend on why. Emotion, 11(3), 603–617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aviezer, H., Hassin, R. R., Ryan, J., Grady, C., Susskind, J., Anderson, A., et al. (2008). Angry, disgusted, or afraid?: Studies on the malleability of emotion perception. Psychological Science, 19(7), 724–732.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science, 338(6111), 1225–1229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bai, Y., McNeil, G., Cowen, A., & Keltner, D. (2018). Darwin’s Emoji: Dimensionality, structure, and conceptualization in the recognition of emotion. Manuscript under review.Google Scholar
  6. Balsters, M. J. H., Krahmer, E. J., Swerts, M. G. J., & Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M. (2013). Emotional tears facilitate the recognition of sadness and the perceived need for social support. Evolutionary Psychology, 11(1), 148–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Banse, R., & Scherer, K. R. (1996). Acoustic profiles in vocal emotion expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 614.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrett, L. F., Mesquita, B., & Gendron, M. (2011). Context in emotion perception. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(5), 286–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Botvinick, M., Jha, A. P., Bylsma, L. M., Fabian, S. A., Solomon, P. E., & Prkachin, K. M. (2005). Viewing facial expressions of pain engages cortical areas involved in the direct experience of pain. Neuroimage, 25(1), 312–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bretherton, I., & Ainsworth, J. (1974). Responses of one-year-olds to a strange situation. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenbaum (Eds.), The origins of fear (pp. 131–164). New York: Wiley publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Briefer, E. F. (2012). Vocal expression of emotions in mammals: Mechanisms of production and evidence. Journal of Zoology, 288(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryant, G. A., & Barrett, H. C. (2007). Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: Evidence for universals. Psychological Science, 18(8), 746–751.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Campos, B., Shiota, M., Keltner, D., Gonzaga, G., & Goetz, J. (2013). What is shared, what is different? Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 37–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chapman, H. A., Kim, D. A., Susskind, J. M., & Anderson, A. K. (2009). In bad taste: Evidence for the oral origins of moral disgust. Science, 323(5918), 1222–1226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cordaro, D. T., Keltner, D., Tshering, S., Wangchuk, D., & Flynn, L. (2016). The voice conveys emotion in ten globalized cultures and one remote village in Bhutan. Emotion, 1, 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cordaro, D. T., Sun, R., Keltner, D., Kamble, S., Huddar, N., & McNeil, G. (2018). Universals and cultural variations in 22 emotional expressions across five cultures. Emotion, 18(1), 75–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Crivelli, C., Jarillo, S., Russell, J. A., & Fernandez-Dols, J. M. (2016). Reading emotions from faces in two indigenous societies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 830–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dael, N., Mortillaro, M., & Scherer, K. R. (2012). Emotion expression in body action and posture. Emotion, 12(5), 1085.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Darwin, C. (1872/1998). The expression of the emotions in man and animals (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. De Waal, F. B. (1996). Good natured. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Du, S., Tao, Y., & Martinez, A. M. (2014). Compound facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(15), E1454–E1462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dubois, A., Bringuier, S., Capdevilla, X., & Pry, R. (2008). Vocal and verbal expression of postoperative pain in preschoolers. Pain Management Nursing, 9(4), 160–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Duran, J. I., Reisenzein, R., & Fernandez-Dols, J.-M. (2017). Coherence between emotions and facial expressions. In J.-M. Fernandez-Dols & J. A. Russell (Eds.), The science of facial expression (pp. 107–129). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989). Human ethology. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  25. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Miller, P. A., Fultz, J., Shell, R., Mathy, R. M., et al. (1989). Relation of sympathy and personal distress to prosocial behavior: A multimethod study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ekman, P. (1993). Facial expression of emotion. American Psychologist, 48, 384–392.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ekman, P., & Cordaro, D. (2011). What is meant by calling emotions basic. Emotion Review, 3(4), 364–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ekman, P. E., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978). Facial action coding system: Investigatoris guide. Washington: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  31. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1986). A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 10(2), 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ekman, P., & Rosenberg, E. L. (Eds.). (1997). What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in the Facial Display of Emotions. Science, 164, 86–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Elfenbein, H. A. (2013). Nonverbal dialects and accents in facial expressions of emotion. Emotion Review, 5(1), 90–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N. (2002). On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 203–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Elfenbein, H. A., Beaupre, M., Levesque, M., & Hess, U. (2007). Toward a dialect theory: Cultural differences in the expression and recognition of posed facial expressions. Emotion, 7(1), 131–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fang, X., Sauter, D. A., & van Kleef, G. (2018). Mixed emotions: The specificity of emotion perception from static and dynamic faces across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49(1), 130–148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fang, X., van Kleef, G., & Sauter, D. A. (in press). Person perception from changing emotional expressions: Primacy, recency, or averaging effect? Cognition and Emotion. Google Scholar
  39. Feinberg, M., Willer, R., & Keltner, D. (2012). Flustered and faithful: Embarrassment as a signal of prosociality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 81–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fischer, A. H., & Sauter, D. A. (2017). What the theory of affective pragmatics does and doesn’t do. Psychological Inquiry, 28(2–3), 190–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flack, W. (2006). Peripheral feedback effects of facial expressions, bodily postures, and vocal expressions on emotional feelings. Cognition and Emotion, 20(2), 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fridlund, A. J. (1991). Evolution and facial action in reflex, social motive, and paralanguage. Biological Psychology, 32(1), 3–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Goetz, J. L., Keltner, D., & Simon-Thomas, E. (2010). Compassion: An evolutionary analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 351–374.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Gonzaga, G. C., Turner, R. A., Keltner, D., Campos, B., & Altemus, M. (2006). Romantic love and sexual desire in close relationships. Emotion, 6(2), 163–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gross, M. M., Crane, E. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Methodology for assessing bodily expression of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 34(4), 223–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grunau, R. V., & Craig, K. D. (1987). Pain expression in neonates: Facial action and cry. Pain, 28(3), 395–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hawk, S. T., Kleef, G. A. V., Fischer, A. H., & Schalk, J. V. D. (2009). “Worth a thousand words”: Absolute and relative decoding of nonlinguistic affect vocalizations. Emotion, 9, 293–305. Scholar
  49. Hejmadi, A., Davidson, R. J., & Rozin, P. (2000). Exploring Hindu Indian emotion expressions: Evidence for accurate recognition by Americans and Indians. Psychological Science, 11(3), 183–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hertenstein, M. J. (2002). Touch: Its communicative functions in infancy. Human Development, 45, 70–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hertenstein, M. J., Holmes, R., McCullough, M., & Keltner, D. (2009). The communication of emotion via touch. Emotion, 9(4), 566–573.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hertenstein, M. J., Keltner, D., App, B., Bulleit, B. A., & Jaskolka, A. R. (2006). Touch communicates distinct emotions. Emotion, 6(3), 528–533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hess, U., & Fischer, A. (2013). Emotional mimicry as social regulation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17(2), 142–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hess, U., & Hareli, S. (2017). The social signal value of emotions: The role of contextual factors in social inferences from emotional displays. In J. Russell & J.-M. Fernandez-Dols (Eds.), The psychology of facial expression (pp. 375–392). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Horstmann, G. (2003). What do facial expressions convey: Feeling states, behavioral intentions, or actions requests? Emotion, 3(2), 150–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hugenberg, K., & Bodenhausen, G. (2003). Facing prejudice: Implicit prejudice and the perception of facial threat. Psychological Science, 14(6), 640–643.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jack, R. E., Garrod, O. G., Yu, H., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. G. (2012). Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(19), 7241–7244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Juslin, P. N., & Laukka, P. (2003). Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code? Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 770–814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Keltner, D. (1995). Signs of appeasement: Evidence for the distinct displays of embarrassment, amusement, and shame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(3), 441–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Keltner, D. (1996). Evidence for the distinctness of embarrassment, shame, and guilt: A study of recalled antecedents and facial expressions of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 10(2), 155–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keltner, D. (2009). Born to be good: The science of a meaningful life. New York: WW Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  62. Keltner, D., & Bonanno, G. A. (1997). A study of laughter and dissociation: Distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(4), 687.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Keltner, D., & Buswell, B. N. (1997). Embarrassment: Its distinct form and appeasement functions. Psychological Bulletin, 122(3), 250–264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Keltner, D., & Cordaro, D. T. (2016). Understanding multimodal emotional expressions: Recent advances in Basic Emotion Theory. Emotion Researcher, Andrea Scarantino (ed.).
  65. Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). Social functions of emotions at multiple levels of analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 13(5), 505–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. A. (2001). Social functions of emotions. In T. Mayne & G. Bonanno (Eds.), Emotions: Current issues and future directions. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  67. Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (2003). Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 17(2), 297–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Keltner, D., & Kring, A. M. (1998). Emotion, social function, and psychopathology. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 320–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Keltner, D., & Lerner, J. (2010). Emotion. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Giblert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 317–342). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Keltner, D., Sauter, D., Tracy, J., McNeil, G., & Cordaro, D. T. (2016). Expression. In L. F. Barrett, M. Lewis, & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotion (pp. 467–482). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  71. Keltner, D., & Shiota, M. N. (2003). New displays and new emotions: A commentary on Rozin and Cohen (2003). Emotion, 3(1), 86–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Klinnert, M. D., Emde, R. N., Butterfield, P., & Campos, J. J. (1986). Social referencing: The infant’s use of emotional signals from a friendly adult with mother present. Developmental Psychology, 22(4), 427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Knutson, B. (1996). Facial expressions of emotion influence interpersonal trait inferences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 20, 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kraus, M. W., Côté, S., & Keltner, D. (2010). Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy. Psychological Science, 21, 1716–1723.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Krumhuber, E. G., Kappas, A., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2013). Effects of dynamic aspects of facial expressions: A review. Emotion Review, 5(1), 41–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Laukka, P., Elfenbein, H. A., Söder, N., Nordström, H., Althoff, J., Chui, W., et al. (2013). Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 353. Scholar
  77. Laukka, P., Elfenbein, H. A., Thingujam, N. S., Rockstuhl, T., Iraki, F., Wanda, C., et al. (2016). The expression and recognition of emotions in the voice across five nations: A lens model analysis based on acoustic features. Journal of Personaity and Social Psychology, 11(5), 686–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lee, D. H., Susskind, J. M., & Anderson, A. K. (2013). Social transmission of the sensory benefits of eye widening in fear expressions. Psychological Science, 24(6), 957–965.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lench, H. C., Flores, S. A., & Bench, S. W. (2011). Discrete emotions predict changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology: A meta-analysis of experimental emotion elicitations. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 834–855.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity. Psychophysiology, 27(4), 363–384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Martens, J. P., & Tracy, J. L. (2013). The emotional origins of social learning bias: Does the Pride expression cue copying? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 492–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Maruskin, L. A., Thrash, T. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2012). The chills as a psychological construct: Content universe, factor structure, affective composition, elicitors, trait antecedents, and consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(1), 135–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Masuda, T., Ellsworth, P. C., Mesquita, B., Leu, J., & van de Veerdonk, E. (2004). A face in the crowd or a crowd in the face: Japanese and American perceptions of others’ emotions. Unpublished manuscript, Hokkaido University.Google Scholar
  84. Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C. (2017). Methodological issues regarding cross-cultural studies of judgments of facial expressions. Emotion Review, 9(4), 375–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Matsumoto, D., et al. (2008). Facial expressions of emotion. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 211–234). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  86. Morton, E. S. (1977). On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. American Naturalist, 111, 855–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nelson, N. L., & Russell, J. A. (2013). Universality revisited. Emotion Review, 5(1), 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Niedenthal, P. M., Mermillod, M., Maringer, M., & Hess, U. (2010). The Simulation of Smiles (SIMS) model: Embodied simulation and the meaning of facial expression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(06), 417–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Nummenmaa, L., & Saarimäki, H. (2017). Emotions as discrete patterns of systemic activity. Neuroscience Letters. Scholar
  90. Oatley, K. (2004). Scripts, transformations, and suggestiveness, of emotions in Shakespeare and Chekhov. Review of General Psychology, 8, 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ohman, A., & Dimberg, U. (1978). Facial expressions as conditioned stimuli for electrodermal responses: A case of “preparedness”? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1251–1258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2008). The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105, 11087–11092.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Oveis, C., Horberg, E. J., & Keltner, D. (2010). Compassion, pride, and social intuitions of self-other similarity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(4), 618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Owren, M. J., & Bachorowski, J. (2001). The evolution of emotional expression: A “selfish-gene” account of smiling and laughter in early hominids and humans. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonanno (Eds.), Emotions: Current issues and future directions (pp. 152–191). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  95. Parkinson, B. (2005). Do facial movements express emotion or communicate social motives? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 278–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pell, M. D., Monetta, L., Paulmann, S., & Kots, S. A. (2009). Recognizing emotions in a foreign language. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 33, 107–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Piff, P. K., Purcell, A., Gruber, J., Hertenstein, M. J., & Keltner, D. (2012). Contact high: Mania proneness and positive perception of emotional touches. Cognition and Emotion, 26(6), 1116–1123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pochedly, J. T., Widen, S. C., & Russell, J. A. (2012). What emotion does the “facial expression of disgust” express? Emotion, 12(6), 1315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Prkachin, K. M. (1992). The consistency of facial expressions of pain: A comparison across modalities. Pain, 51(3), 297–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Reddy, V. (2000). Coyness in early infancy. Developmental Science, 3(2), 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reddy, V. (2005). Feeling shy and showing-off: Self-conscious emotions must regulate self-awareness. Emotional Development. Scholar
  102. Reeve, J. (1993). The face of interest. Motivation and Emotion, 17(4), 353–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rozin, P., & Cohen, A. B. (2003). High frequency of facial expressions corresponding to confusion, concentration, and worry in an analysis of naturally occurring facial expressions of Americans. Emotion, 3(1), 68–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rozin, P., Lowery, L., & Ebert, R. (2004). Varieties of disgust faces and the structure of disgust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), 870–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Russell, J. A. (1994). Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expressions? A review of the cross-cultural studies. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 102–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sander, D., Grandjean, D., Kaiser, S., Wehrle, T., & Scherer, K. R. (2007). Interaction effects of perceived gaze direction and dynamic facial expression: Evidence for appraisal theories of emotion. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(3), 470–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sauter, D. A., & Eisner, F. (2013). Commonalities outweigh differences in the communication of emotions across human cultures [Letter to the editor]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(3), E180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Calder, A. J., & Scott, S. K. (2010a). Perceptual cues in non-verbal vocal expressions of emotion. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(11), 2251–2272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S. K. (2010b). Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(6), 2408–2412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Ekman, P., & Scott, S. K. (2015). Emotional vocalisations are recognised across cultures regardless of distractor valence. Psychological Science, 26(3), 354–356.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Sauter, D. A., Panattoni, C., & Happe, F. (2013). Children’s recognition of emotions from vocal cues. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 97–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sauter, D. A., & Scott, S. K. (2007). More than one kind of happiness: Can we recognize vocal expressions of different positive states? Motivation and Emotion, 31(3), 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scarantino, A. (2017). How to do things with emotional expressions: The theory of affective pragmatics. Psychological Inquiry, 28(2–3), 165–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Scherer, K. R. (1986). Vocal affect expression: A review and a model for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 99(2), 43–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Scherer, K. R., & Ellgring, H. (2007). Multimodal expression of emotion: Affect programs or componential appraisal patterns? Emotion, 7(1), 113–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Scherer, K. R., & Grandjean, D. (2008). Facial expressions allow inference of both emotions and their components. Cognition and Emotion, 22(5), 789–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schröder, M. (2003). Experimental study of affect bursts. Speech Communication, 40(1), 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shariff, A. F., & Tracy, J. L. (2009). Knowing who’s boss: Implicit perceptions of status from the nonverbal expression of pride. Emotion, 9, 631–639.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Shariff, A. F., & Tracy, J. L. (2011). What are emotion expressions for? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(6), 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shariff, A. F., Tracy, J. L., & Markusoff, J. (2012). (Implicitly) judging a book by its cover: The power of pride and shame expressions in shaping judgments of social status. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1178–1193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Shiota, M. N., Campos, B., & Keltner, D. (2003). The faces of positive emotion: Prototype displays of awe, amusement, and pride. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Shiota, M. N., Campos, B., Oveis, C., Hertenstein, M., Simon-Thomas, E., & Keltner, D. (2017). Beyond happiness: Toward a science of discrete positive emotions. American Psychologist, 72(7), 617–643.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D., & Mossman, A. (2007). The nature of awe: Elicitors, appraisals, and effects on self-concept. Cognition and Emotion, 21(5), 944–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shuman, V., Clark-Polner, E., Meuleman, B., Sander, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2015). Emotion perception from a componential perspective. Cognition and Emotion, 37(1), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Silvia, P. J. (2008). Interest—The curious emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(1), 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Simon-Thomas, E. R., Keltner, D. J., Sauter, D., Sinicropi-Yao, L., & Abramson, A. (2009). The voice conveys specific emotions: Evidence from vocal burst displays. Emotion, 9(6), 838.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Snowdon, C. T. (2003). Expression of emotion in nonhuman animals. In R. J. Davidson, K. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 457–534). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  128. Stellar, J. E., Cohen, A., Oveis, C., & Keltner, D. (2015). Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: Compassion and vagal activity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 572–585.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Susskind, J. M., Lee, D. H., Cusi, A., Feiman, R., Grabski, W., & Anderson, A. K. (2008). Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition. Nature Neuroscience, 11(7), 843–850.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Szameitat, D. P., Alter, K., Szameitat, A. J., Darwin, C. J., Wildgruber, D., Dietrich, S., et al. (2009). Differentiation of emotions in laughter at the behavioral level. Emotion, 9(3), 397–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Tiedens, L. Z., & Fragale, A. R. (2003). Power moves: Complementarity in submissive and dominant nonverbal behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 558–568.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Tracy, J. L., & Matsumoto, D. (2008). The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(33), 11655–11660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2004). Show your pride evidence for a discrete emotion expression. Psychological Science, 15(3), 194–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2007). The prototypical pride expression: Development of a nonverbal behavioral coding system. Emotion, 7, 789–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2008). The nonverbal expression of pride: Evidence for cross-cultural recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 516–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., & Schriber, R. A. (2009). Development of a FACS-verified set of basic and self-conscious emotion expressions. Emotion, 9, 554–559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tracy, J. L., Shariff, A. F., Zhao, W., & Henrich, J. (2013). Cross-cultural evidence that the pride expression is a universal automatic status signal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tronick, E. Z. (1989). Emotions and emotional communications in infants. American Psychologist, 44, 112–119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. van Dijk, C., de Jong, P. J., & Peters, M. L. (2009). The remedial value of blushing in the context of transgressions and mishaps. Emotion, 9, 287–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How emotions regulate social life: The emotions as social information (EASI) model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 184–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Van Kleef, G. A. (2016). The interpersonal dynamics of emotion: Toward an integrative theory of emotions as social information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Van Kleef, G. A., Cheshin, A., Fischer, A. H., & Schneider, I. K. (2016). Editorial: The social nature of emotions. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(896), 1–5.Google Scholar
  143. Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., & Bylsma, L. M. (2016). The riddle of human emotional crying: A challenge for emotion researchers. Emotion Review, 8(3), 207–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Williams, A. C. D. C. (2002). Facial expression of pain, empathy, evolution, and social learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25(04), 475–480.Google Scholar
  145. Willis, F. N., & Hamm, H. (1980). The use of interpersonal touch in securing compliance. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 5(1), 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyAmsterdam UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations