Creating 3D models from Radiologic Images for Virtual Reality Medical Education Modules

  • Simon Ammanuel
  • Isaiah Brown
  • Jesus Uribe
  • Bhavya RehaniEmail author
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Education & Training


Virtual Reality (VR) is a powerful tool that has increasingly being used by medical field in recent years. It has been mainly used surgical training in particular laparoscopic procedures. VR can be used for the teaching of anatomy. The aim of the study is to show application of transforming 2D radiologic images into 3D model by using thresholding and segmentation and import into VR interface at an affordable cost. Four anatomy modules are created with inputs to control the rotational and translational movement of 3D models in the virtual space. These movements allow users to explore 3D models by using head tilt and gaze input. 3D models of the Circle of Willis, Vertebral Aneurysm, Spine, and Skull are rendered in the user’s field of view at runtime. VR is constructed to have many potentials uses in radiology education. Visualization of 3D anatomic structures in a virtual environment give another tool for teaching to students and patients about anatomy of the body. Four anatomy modules described here demonstrate example user interaction patterns best suited for viewing contexts. Instead viewing stacked 2D images or 3D models confined to desktop applications, virtual reality increases user interactivity of education. An intuitive understanding of anatomic structures in 3D space enhances the learning experience for medical students, residents, and patients we are treating.


Virtual Reality Medical Education Anatomy DICOM 3D Models 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiology and Biomedical ImagingUniversity of California San Francisco School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA

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