Effect of Experience and Psychophysiological Modification by Combat Stress in Soldier’s Memory
- 50 Downloads
The present research aimed to analyze the effect of experience and psychophysiological modification by combat stress in soldier’s memory in a simulated combat situation. Variables of rate of perceived exertion, blood glucose, blood lactate, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills, autonomic modulation, state anxiety, and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 15 experienced soldiers of a special operation unit and 20 non-experienced soldiers of light infantry unit from the Spanish Army. The stress of combat simulation produces a significant increase (p < 0.05) in rated perceived exertion, blood glucose, blood lactate, somatic anxiety and a low frequency domain of the heart rate, and a significant decrease of rifle magazine reload time, high frequency domain of the heart rate and somatic anxiety in both groups. The variables of RPE, glucose, CFFT, RMRT, RMSSD, LF/HF, CA, SA and STAI were significantly different in experienced soldiers shown the activation of fight-flight system. The anticipatory anxiety in experienced soldiers shows a cognitive behavioral association by past experiences. The analysis of correct response in the postmission questionnaire show elements more related with the sight and that endanger the physical integrity of soldiers are more remembered, and some significant differences (p < 0.05) in the memory performance of experienced soldiers and non experienced soldiers where experienced soldiers shown a better performance. As conclusion, combat stress produce an increase in the psichophysiological response of soldiers independently of experience, but experienced ones presented a lower negative effect on memory than non experienced.
KeywordsMilitary Combat stress Memory Cognitive behavioral association Military anxiety
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declares that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 4.Belenky, G., Balkin, T. J., Redmond, D. P., Sing, H. C., Thomas, M. L., Thorne, D. R. et al., Sustaining performance during continuous operations: the US army’s sleep management system. In: Friedl, K., Lieberman, H., Ryan, D. H., Bray, G. A. (Eds), Pennington Center Nutritional Series, Vol. 10, Countermeasures for Battlefield Stressors. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
- 5.Clemente-Suárez, V. J., and Robles-Pérez, J. J., Análisis de los marcadores fisiológicos, activación cortical y manifestaciones de la fuerza en una situación simulada de combate. Arch. Med. Deporte. 39(149):680–686, 2012a.Google Scholar
- 7.Clemente-Suárez, V. J., and Robles-Pérez, J. J., Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat. Anal. Psycol. 29:598–603, 2013a.Google Scholar
- 13.Delgado-Moreno, R., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Combat stress decreases memory of warfighters in action. J. Med. Syst. 41(124), 2017.Google Scholar
- 18.Barsegyan, A., Mackenzie, S. M., Kurose, B.D., McGaugh, J. L., & Roozendaal, B., Glucocorticoids in the prefrontal cortex enhance memory consolidation and impair working memory by a common neural mechanism. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107, (38), 16655-16660, 2010.Google Scholar
- 19.Martens, R., Vealey, R.S., and Burton, D., Competitive anxiety in sport: Human kinetics, Champaig, 1990.Google Scholar
- 26.Selye, H., Stress in health and disease. Boston M.A: Butterworth’s, Inc, 1976.Google Scholar
- 29.Andrade Fernandez, E. M., Lois Rio, G., and Arce Fernandez, C., Psychometric properties of the spanish version of the revised competitive state anxiety inventory-2 with athletes. [Propiedades psicometricas de la version española del Inventariode Ansiedad Competitiva CSAI-2R en deportistas]. Psicothema. 19(1):150–155, 2007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R. E., and Cubero, N. S., STAI: Cuestionario de ansiedad estado-rasgo. Madrid: Tea, 1994.Google Scholar
- 34.Rodas, G., Pedret Carballido, C., Ramos, J., and Capdevila, L., Heart rate variability: Definition, measurement and clinical relation aspects (I). Arch. Med. Deport. 25(123):41–47, 2008.Google Scholar
- 36.San Roque, L., Kendrick, K. H., Norcliffe, E., Brown, P., Defina, R., Dingemanse, M., Dirksmeyer, T., Enfield, N. J., Floyd, S., Hammond, J., Rossi, G., Tufvesson, S., Van Putten, S., and Majid, A., Vision verbs dominate in conversation across cultures, but the ranking of non-visual verbs varies. Cogn. Linguist. 26(1):31–60, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Lupien, S. J., Gaudreau, S., Tchitey, B. M., Maheu, F., Sharma, S., Nair, N. P. V., Hauger, R. L., McEwen, B. S., and Meaney, M. J., Stress-induced declarative memory impainment in healthy elderly subjects: Relationship to cortisol reactivity 1. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82(7):2070–2075, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar