Advertisement

Evaluation of Central Fatigue by the Critical Flicker Fusion Threshold in Cyclists

  • Vicente Javier Clemente-SuárezEmail author
  • Montaña Diaz-Manzano
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Technological Innovations in Biomedical Training and Practice (TEEM 2018)

Abstract

Central fatigue related in sport stimuli was studied by Critical Flicker Fusion Threshold (CFFT) to know the influence of exercise on the central nervous system (CNS), but there is a lack of knowledge about the central or peripheral fatigue in endurance events. This study aimed to analyze changes in CFFT before and after the incremental cycle ergometer test as a means to assess the fatigue of the CNS. CFFT ascending and descending, the subjective criterion and sensory sensitivity were analysed in 8 professional male cyclists (72.1 ± 5.59 kg, 180.3 ± 6.43 cm, 17.4 ± 0.7 years) before and after a maximum incremental cycle ergometer test (start 50w increases 50w each 5 min). In this incremental test, the induced fatigue was probably more a peripheral phenomenon than one due to central nervous system fatigue, because sensory sensitivity did not significantly decrease. In conclusion, an incremental cycle ergometer test increased the cortical arousal and does not affect negatively the CNS of professional cyclists.

Keywords

Cortical arousal Central nervous system Fatigue Flicker fusion threshold Cycle ergometer 

Notes

Funding

None.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Bustamante-Sánchez, Á., Delgado-Terán, M., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Psychophysiological response of different aircrew in normobaric hypoxia training. Ergonomics 29:1–9, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hormeño-Holgado, A. J., Perez-Martinez, M. A., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Psychophysiological response of air mobile protection teams in an air accident manoeuvre. Physiol. Behav. 199:79–83, 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beltrán-Velasco, A. I., Bellido-Esteban, A., Ruisoto-Palomera, P., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Use of portable digital devices to analyze autonomic stress response in psychology objective structured clinical examination. J. Med. Syst. 42(2):35, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tomporowski, P. D., Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta. Psychol. 112(3):297–324, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Görtelmeyer, R., and Wiemann, H., Retest reliability and construct validity of critical flicker fusion frequency. Pharmacopsychiatry 15(S 1):24–28, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, Z., Jiao, K., Chen, M., and Wang, C., Reducing the effects of driving fatigue with magnitopuncture stimulation. Accident Anal. Prevent. 36(4):501–505, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Curiel-Regueros, A., Fernández-Lucas, J., & Clemente-Suárez, V. J. (2019). Effectiveness of an applied high intensity interval training as a specific operative training. Physiol Behav. 201(15): 208-211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.01.009.
  8. 8.
    Saito, S., Does fatigue exist in a quantitative measurement of eye movements? Ergonomics 35(5–6):607–615, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davranche, K., and Pichon, A., Critical flicker frequency threshold increment after an exhausting exercise. J. Sport Exercise Psychol. 27(4):515, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clemente, V., Fatiga del sistema nervioso después de una prueba de contrarreloj de 30'en cicloergómetro en ciclistas jóvenes. Motricidad. Eur. J. Human Move. 25, 2010.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Presland, J. D., Dowson, M. N., and Cairns, S. P., Changes of motor drive, cortical arousal and perceived exertion following prolonged cycling to exhaustion. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 95(1):42–51, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Effect of a Wingate test in cortical arousal and central nervous system in trained cyclists. Med. Sport 68(3):367–373, 2015.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grego, F., Vallier, J., Collardeau, M., Rousseu, C., Cremieux, J., and Brisswalter, J., Influence of exercise duration and hydration status on cognitive function during prolonged cycling exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 26(01):27–33, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clemente Suárez, V. J., and Martínez Trigo, R., Fatiga del sistema nervioso mediante umbrales Flicker Fusion después de una prueba de ultrarresistencia por relevos de 200 km. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte. 5(13), 2010.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Godefroy, D., Rousseu, C., Vercruyssen, F., Cremieux, J., and Brisswalter, J., Influence of physical exercise on perceptual response in aerobically trained subjects. Percept. Mot. Skills 94(1):68–70, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Muñoz, V., and Melus, M., Fatiga del sistema nervioso después de realizar un test de capacidad de sprints repetidos (RSA) en jugadores de fútbol profesionales. Arch. Med. Deporte 28(143):174–180, 2011.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herrera, G., Callejón, D., Urena, A., Santos, J., Hernández, L., and Callejón, D., Voleibol. Madrid: Voleibol, 1992.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Fernandes, R. J., de Jesus, K., Pelarigo, J., Arroyo-Toledo, J. J., and Vilas-Boas, J. P., Do traditional and reverse swimming training periodizations lead to similar aerobic performance improvements? J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 58(6):761–767, 2018.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Delgado-Moreno, R., González, B., Ortega, J., and Ramos-Campo, D.J., Amateur endurance triathletes’ performance is improved independently of volume or intensity based training. Physiol. Behav. 2018.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Dalamitros, A. A., and Nikolaidis, P. T., The effect of a short-term training period on physiological parameters and running performance: Intensity distribution versus constant-intensity exercise. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 58(1–2):1–7, 2018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Dalamitros, A., Ribeiro, J., Sousa, A., Fernandes, R. J., and Vilas-Boas, J. P., The effects of two different swimming training periodization on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 17(4):425–432, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clemente-Suarez, V.J., Periodized training archive better autonomic modulation and aerobic performance than non periodized training. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 2017.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., The application of cortical arousal assessment to control neuromuscular fatigue during strength training. J. Mot. Behav. 49(4):429–434, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., and Robles-Pérez, J. J., Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat. An. Psychol. 29(2):598–603, 2013.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Belinchon-Demiguel, P., and Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Nutrition, hydration and ergogenic aids strategies in ultraendurance mountain events. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08920-X.
  26. 26.
    Belinchon-deMiguel, P., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Psychophysiological, body composition, biomechanical and autonomic modulation analysis procedures in an Ultraendurance Mountain race. J. Med. Syst. 42(2):32, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Clemente, V., Fatigue of nervous system through Flicker fusion thresholds after a maximum incremental cycling test. J. Sport Health Res. 3(1):1–21, 2011.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Huertas, C., and Juárez, D., Nervous system fatigue flicker fusion thresholds after performing a test of maximal strength in squat. Rev. Entrenamiento Deportivo 25(3):5–9, 2011.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Martínez, A., Muñoz, V., and González, J., Fatigue of central nervous system after an incremental maximal oxygen uptake test. Arch. Med. Deporte 137:107–118, 2010.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Delgado-Moreno, R., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Combat stress decreases memory of warfighters in action. J. Med. Syst. 41(8):124, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Delgado-Moreno, R., Robles-Pérez, J. J., Aznar, S., and Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Inalambric biofeedback devices to analyze strength manifestation in military population. J. Med. Syst. 42(4):60, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Diaz-Manzano, M., Robles-Pérez, J. J., Herrera-Mendoza, K., Herrera-Tapias, B., Fernández-Lucas, J., Aznar-Lain, S. et al., Effectiveness of psycho-physiological portable devices to analyse effect of ergogenic aids in military population. J. Med. Syst. 42(5):84, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tornero-Aguilera, J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Use of psychophysiological portable devices to analyse stress response in different experienced soldiers. J. Med. Syst. 42(4):75, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tornero-Aguilera, J. F., and Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Effect of experience, equipment and fire actions in psychophysiological response and memory of soldiers in actual underground operations. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 128:40–46, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tornero-Aguilera, J. F., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response of elite and non-elite soldiers. J. Med. Syst. 41(6):100, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sánchez-Molina, J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Assessment of psychophysiological response and specific fine motor skills in combat units. J. Med. Syst. 42(4):67, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sánchez-Molina, J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Effect of parachute jump in the psychophysiological response of soldiers in urban combat. J. Med. Syst. 41(6):99, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bellido, A., Ruisoto, P., Beltran-Velasco, A., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., State of the art on the use of portable digital devices to assess stress in humans. J. Med. Syst. 42(6):100, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Palomera, P. R., and Robles-Pérez, J. J., Psychophysiological response to acute-high-stress combat situations in professional soldiers. Stress Health 34(2):247–252, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Fernández-Lucas, J., Psychophysiological response in parachute jumps, the effect of experience and type of jump. Physiol. Behav. 1(179):178–183, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., Herrera-Mendoza, K., Herrera-Tapias, B., and Fernández-Lucas, J., Psychophysiological response and fine motor skills in high-altitude parachute jumps. High Alt. Med. Biol. 18(4):392–399, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ghozlan, A., and Widlöcher, D., Ascending-descending threshold difference and internal subjective judgment in CFF measurements of depressed patients before and after clinical improvement. Percept. Mot. Skills 77(2):435–439, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., and Arroyo-Toledo, J. J., The use of autonomic modulation device to control training performance after high-intensity interval training program. J. Med. Syst. 42(3):47, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arroyo-Toledo, J. J., Clemente Suárez, V. J., and González Ravé, J. M., Effects of traditional and reverse periodization on strength, body-composition and swim performance. Imperial J. Interdiscip. Res. 2(12):474–481, 2016.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Arroyo-Toledo, J. J., Clemente, V. J., Gonzalez-Rave, J. M., Ramos Campo, D. J., and Sortwell, A., Comparison between traditional and reverse periodization: Swimming performance and specific strength values. Int. J. Swimming Kinetics 2(1):87–96, 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Sports SciencesUniversidad Europea de MadridVillaviciosa de OdónSpain
  2. 2.Grupo de Investigación en Cultura, Educación y SociedadUniversidad de la CostaBarranquillaColombia
  3. 3.Research Center in Applied Combat (CESCA)ToledoSpain

Personalised recommendations