Journal of Medical Systems

, 43:40 | Cite as

A Tri- State Filter for the Removal of Salt and Pepper Noise in Mammogram Images

  • Varatharajan RamachandranEmail author
  • Vasanth Kishorebabu
Image & Signal Processing
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Advancements in Internet of Medical Things for Healthcare System


A new algorithm which uses tree based decision and tri-state non linear values to eliminate high density outlier noise in mammogram images is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses the number of non noisy pixels in the current processing vicinity as values in the decision tree. Tri-state values such as unsymmetrical truncated median or modified Winsorized mean or midpoint replaces the corrupted pixel based on the decision tree in the current processing kernel. The algorithm exhibits good PSNR, IEF, low MSE and High structural preservation property even after removing high density noise. The performance of the proposed algorithm was also found good visually. The Key aspect of the work is the combination of tree based decision and tri-state non linear values which preserves the information content of images that are required for further processing.


Detail preserving algorithm Outlier noise Mammogram images Non linear filter 



Decision based algorithm


Salt and pepper noise removal


Peak signal to noise ratio


Mean square error


Image enhancement factor


Structural similarity index metric


Standard median filter


Adaptive median filter


Progressive switched median filter


Improved decision based median filter


Cascaded unsymmetrical trimmed median filter


Cascaded unsymmetrical trimmed midpoint filter


Modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter


Decision based unsymmetrical trimmed midpoint filter


Decision based spline interpolation filter


Trisate filter (proposed algorithm)

List of symbols


Probability density function


Corresponding pixel of the noisy image


Current processing pixel


Array holding sorted pixels of current processing window


Size of the image


Original image


Restored image


Corrupted image


Number of non noisy pixels in the current processing window


Average of the original image


Average of the restored image


Dynamic range of pixel value


Standard deviation of the original image


Standard deviation of the restored image


Kernel size of original image


Kernal size of the restored image


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

Varatharajan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Vasanth Kishorebabu declares that he/she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Articles do not contain studies with human participants or animals by any of the authors. Images used in the work are stored in database given in website given in reference 30.The images used in the database can be used for research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Varatharajan Ramachandran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vasanth Kishorebabu
    • 2
  1. 1.Sri Ramanujar Engineering CollegeKancheepuramIndia
  2. 2.Vidya Jyothi Institute of TechnologyKancheepuramIndia

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