Journal of Medical Systems

, 42:170 | Cite as

Task2Heart: Exploring Heart Rate Differences with Time-Motion Workflow Observations of Emergency Medicine Physicians

  • Allan FongEmail author
  • Tracy C. Kim
  • Raj M. Ratwani
  • Kathryn M. Kellogg
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Education & Training


Emergency department (ED) teams deliver and coordinate unscheduled, high acuity care to multiple patients simultaneously. ED teams have little control over incoming patient flow, volume, or acuity, resulting in chaotic and unpredictable environments. While emergency medicine (EM) is known to be stressful with a high rate of physicians leaving the field, the specific types of tasks associated with this stress have not been well defined [1, 2]. Understanding the aspects of practicing EM that are resulting in the greatest stress for physicians is essential to developing strategies to decrease acute stress and burnout in the long term.

Most prior work on emergency physician (EP) stress has focused on qualitative methods using surveys and interviews to assess self-reported perceptions of workplace stress-associated factors [3, 4]. Studies have suggested that multitasking and interruptions increase physician workload and stress, which could influence burnout and patient care [5,...



This work was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (5R03HS024801–02).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MedStar Institute for Innovation - National Center for Human Factors in HealthcareWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Georgetown University School of MedicineWashingtonUSA

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